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When selection on males and females differs, the sexes may diverge in phenotype. Hormones serve as a proximate regulator of sex differences by mediating sex-biased trait expression. To integrate these perspectives, we consider how suites of traits mediated by the same hormone in both sexes might respond to selection. In male birds, plasma testosterone (T)(More)
Monogamous male birds typically allocate less e¡ort to courtship and more to parental behaviour than males of polygynous species. The seasonal pattern of testosterone (T) secretion varies accordingly. Mono-gamous males exhibit a spring peak in plasma T followed by lower levels during the parental phase, while males of polygynous species continue to court(More)
Understanding physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlying the diversity of observed life-history strategies is challenging because of difficulties in obtaining long-term measures of fitness and in relating fitness to these mechanisms. We evaluated effects of experimentally elevated testosterone on male fitness in a population of dark-eyed juncos(More)
Monogamous and polygynous male songbirds generally differ in their breeding season profiles of circulating testosterone. Testosterone level spikes early in the breeding season of monogamists and then declines, but it remains high in polygynists. Male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) are socially monogamous and exhibit the usual pattern, but experimental(More)
Maternally derived steroid hormones are known to be present in the yolks of avian eggs; however, the physiological mechanisms involved in their deposition remain largely unexplored. Investigations of steroid production by avian follicles have demonstrated temporal differences in the concentrations of progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone during(More)
Male birds frequently face a trade-off between acquiring mates and caring for offspring. Hormone manipulation studies indicate that testosterone often mediates this trade-off, increasing mating effort while decreasing parental effort. Little is known, however, about individual covariation between testosterone and relevant behavior on which selection might(More)
Hormones coordinate the co-expression of behavioral, physiological, and morphological traits, giving rise to correlations among traits and organisms whose parts work well together. This article considers the implications of these hormonal correlations with respect to the evolution of hormone-mediated traits. Such traits can evolve owing to changes in(More)
When male investment in mating varies with quality, reliable sexual signals may evolve. In many songbirds, testosterone mediates mating investment, suggesting that signals should be linked to testosterone production. However, because testosterone may change rapidly during behaviour such as territorial aggression and courtship, efforts to establish such a(More)