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We describe a new molecular approach to analyzing the genetic diversity of complex microbial populations. This technique is based on the separation of polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments of genes coding for 16S rRNA, all the same length, by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis of different microbial communities(More)
In bacteria that divide by binary fission, cell division starts with the polymerization of the tubulin homolog FtsZ at mid-cell to form a cell division scaffold (the Z ring), followed by recruitment of the other divisome components. The current view of bacterial cell division control starts from the principle of negative checkpoints that prevent incorrect(More)
The transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)-mediated trans-translation mechanism is highly conserved in bacteria and functions primarily as a system for the rescue of stalled ribosomes and the removal of aberrantly produced proteins. Here, we show that in the antibiotic-producing soil bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor, trans-translation has a specialized role in(More)
The thermodynamic parameters of the conformational transition occurring at low pH (acid transition, AT) in blue copper proteins, involving protonation and detachment from the Cu(I) ion of one histidine ligand, have been determined electrochemically for spinach and cucumber plastocyanins, Rhus vernicifera stellacyanin, cucumber basic protein (CBP), and(More)
The reduction thermodynamics (Delta H degrees '(rc) and Delta S degrees '(rc)) for native Paracoccus versutus amicyanin, for Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 pseudoazurin, and for the G45P, M64E, and K27C variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin were measured electrochemically. Comparison with the data available for other native and mutated blue copper proteins(More)
Studies on transcellular transport across epithelial cell layers are performed mostly by discontinuous sampling of the transported compound. This has several drawbacks, e.g., it gives disturbances in volume, it limits the time-resolution, and is often laborious. In this report we introduce a method to measure transepithelial transport of fluorescent(More)
The changes in the reduction potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes denitrificans azurins following point mutations and residue ionizations were factorized into the enthalpic and entropic contributions through variable temperature direct electrochemistry experiments. The effects on the reduction enthalpy due to changes in the first coordination(More)
We have studied the morphological, conformational, and electron-transfer (ET) function of the metalloprotein azurin in the solid state, by a combination of physical investigation methods, namely atomic force microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. We demonstrate that a "solid state protein film" maintains its(More)