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Cytokines act as chemical mediators during the inflammatory process. Measurements of cytokine levels in tissue have previously been performed in homogenized tissue, but the true concentrations in native interstitial fluid (ISF), i.e., the compartment where cytokines exert their biologically active role, have remained unknown. The role of skeletal muscle(More)
The control of pain perception is a challenge in clinical dentistry, most prominent during tooth pulp inflammation. The tooth pulp is a well-defined target, and is densely supplied by a sensory trigeminal innervation. Opioids are signaling molecules that are suggested to participate in pain perception. Here we analysed the presence of delta opioid receptor(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the chronologic disease course and possible interrelationships between salivary gland inflammation, hyposalivation, and cytokine levels in NOD mice, a model for Sjögren's syndrome (SS). METHODS NOD mice of different ages were used to mimic different disease stages of SS. Histopathologic findings and rates of salivary secretion(More)
Remodelling of the periodontium after application of mechanical forces constitutes the basis of clinical orthodontics and various immunoregulatory molecules are involved in this process. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the cytokines interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in dental tissues during(More)
AIM To study the pattern of neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor (Y1R) localization in the normal dental pulp and during different stages of pulpal inflammation. The hypothesis was that the expression of Y1R varies during different stages of pulpitis. METHODOLOGY Pulp exposure injury was made on first molar teeth of Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were killed 3,(More)
Previous experiments show that nerves have effect on the emigration of immunocompetent cells during acute neurogenic inflammation. The present study aims to determine whether the sympathetic or sensory nerves are responsible for emigration of CD43+ and I-A antigen-expressing cells in the dental pulp after electrical tooth stimulation. Wistar rats were used.(More)
The composition and characteristics of the bone marrow extracellular fluid supposedly modify the transport of cytokines, drugs, and other signaling molecules involved in the regulation of bone marrow function. Direct access to the bone marrow extracellular fluid surrounding hematopoietic cells is complicated by the virtually noncompliant surrounding bone(More)
Tissue pressure is the hydrostatic pressure in the interstitial fluid which surrounds the pulpal cells. This pressure outside the vessels is normally considerably lower than the blood pressure inside the vessels. The dental pulp has a relatively low interstitial compliance due to its enclosure between rigid dentin walls. Accordingly, even a modest increase(More)
The submandibular gland transports fluid at a high rate through the interstitial space during salivation, but the exact level of all forces governing transcapillary fluid transport has not been established. In this study, our aim was to measure the relation between interstitial fluid volume (V(i)) and interstitial fluid pressure (P(if)) in salivary glands(More)
The gingiva is frequently challenged by oral bacterial products leading to inflammatory responses such as increased fluid filtration and edema formation. The role of initial lymphatics for transcapillary fluid balance in the gingiva is unknown and was therefore investigated in genetically engineered K14-VEGF receptor 3-Ig (K14) lymphedema mice. The mutant(More)