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Within the cystatin superfamily, only kininogen domain 2 (KD2) is able to inhibit mu- and m-calpain. In an attempt to elucidate the structural requirements of cystatins for calpain inhibition, we constructed recombinant hybrids of human stefin B (an intracellular family 1 cystatin) with KD2 and deltaL110 deletion mutants of chicken cystatin-KD2 hybrids.… (More)
A trypsin-like serine peptidase activity, levels of which correlate with blood parasitemia levels, is present in the plasma of rats acutely infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Antibodies to a trypanosome peptidase with a trypsin-like substrate specificity (oligopeptidase B [OP-Tb]) cross-reacted with a protein in the plasma of trypanosome-infected rats… (More)
The sequence of the 6,408 nucleotides of bacteriophage fd DNA has been determined. This allows to deduce the exact organisation of the filamentous phage genome and provides easy access to DNA segments of known structure and function.
Calpains are intracellular proteinases whose proteolytic activity is directed mainly against the cytoskeleton and regulatory proteins. We studied the presence of calpain by immunohistochemistry in a rat model of reversible focal cerebral ischemia (3 h) at various times of reperfusion. The numbers of calpain-positive cells on the ischemic side were compared… (More)
The application of copper-TSVs for 3D-IC-integration generates novel challenges for reliability analysis and prediction, i.e. to master multiple failure criteria for combined loading including residual stresses, interface delamination, cracking and fatigue. So, the thermal expansion mismatch between copper and silicon yields to stress situation in silicon… (More)
The paper reviews some of the currently used strain / stress measurement tools developed for rather local application - deformation and stress measurement by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) techniques, microRaman, and electron diffraction for stress measurement. The selected methods possess spatial measurement resolutions of 1 μm or better, which… (More)
Three different experimental methods have been used to determine mechanical stresses in silicon nearby tungsten TSVs - HR-XRD performed at a synchrotron beamline, microRaman spectroscopy and stress relief techniques put into effect by FIB ion milling. All methods possess, to a different extend, high spatial resolution capabilities. However they differ in… (More)