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Changes in arterial shear stress induce functional and structural vasculature adaptations. Recent studies indicate that substantial retrograde flow and shear can occur through human conduit arteries. In animals, retrograde shear is associated with atherogenic effects. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of incremental levels of retrograde shear(More)
Although episodic changes in shear stress have been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the effects of exercise training on the vasculature, this hypothesis has not been directly addressed in humans. We examined brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial function, in healthy men in response to an acute bout of handgrip(More)
Perfusion to exercising skeletal muscle is regulated to match O(2) delivery to the O(2) demand, but this regulation might be compromised during or approaching maximal whole-body exercise as muscle blood flow for a given work rate is blunted. Whether muscle perfusion is restricted when there is an extreme metabolic stimulus to vasodilate during supramaximal(More)
Model studies have been advanced to suggest both that a siphon does and does not support cerebral blood flow in an upright position. If a siphon is established with the head raised, it would mean that internal jugular pressure reflects right atrium pressure minus the hydrostatic difference from the brain. This study measured spinal fluid pressure in the(More)
During maximal exercise in humans, fatigue is preceded by reductions in systemic and skeletal muscle blood flow, O(2) delivery and uptake. Here, we examined whether the uptake of O(2) and substrates by the human brain is compromised and whether the fall in stroke volume of the heart underlying the decline in systemic O(2) delivery is related to declining(More)
Brain function requires oxygen and maintenance of brain capillary oxygenation is important. We evaluated how faithfully frontal lobe near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) follows haemoglobin saturation (SCap) and how calculated mitochondrial oxygen tension (PMitoO2) influences motor performance. Twelve healthy subjects (20 to 29 years), supine and seated,(More)
Reductions in systemic and locomotor limb muscle blood flow and O2 delivery limit aerobic capacity in humans. To examine whether O2 delivery limits both aerobic power and capacity, we first measured systemic haemodynamics, O2 transport and O2 uptake during incremental and constant (372 +/- 11 W; 85% of peak power; mean +/- S.E.M.) cycling exercise to(More)
Blood flow to dynamically contracting myocytes is regulated to match O(2) delivery to metabolic demand. The red blood cell (RBC) itself functions as an O(2) sensor, contributing to the control of O(2) delivery by releasing the vasodilators ATP and S-nitrosohaemoglobin with the offloading of O(2) from the haemoglobin molecule. Whether RBC number is sensed(More)
Lower limb exercise increases upper limb conduit artery blood flow and shear stress, and leg exercise training can enhance upper limb vascular function. We therefore examined the contribution of shear stress to changes in vascular function in the nonexercising upper limbs in response to lower limb cycling exercise training. Initially, five male subjects(More)
BACKGROUND Exercise induced cardiac fatigue has recently been observed after prolonged exercise. A moderate to high altitude has been suggested as a possible stimulus in the genesis of such cardiac fatigue. OBJECTIVE To investigate if exercise induced cardiac fatigue and or cardiac damage occurs after prolonged exercise in a hypoxic environment. METHODS(More)