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The mucosal immune system identifies and fights invading pathogens, while allowing non-pathogenic organisms to persist. Mechanisms of pathogen/non-pathogen discrimination are poorly understood, as is the contribution of human genetic variation in disease susceptibility. We describe here a new, IRF3-dependent signaling pathway that is critical for(More)
PURPOSE Asymptomatic bacteriuria established by intravesical inoculation of Escherichia coli 83972 is protective in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. In this randomized, controlled crossover study a total of 3 symptomatic urinary tract infection episodes developed in 2 patients while they carried E. coli 83972. We examined whether virulence(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), made up of endothelial cells of capillaries in the brain, maintains the microenvironment of the central nervous system. During ischemia and traumatic brain injury (TBI), cellular disruption leading to mechanical insult results to the BBB being compromised. Oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) is the most commonly used in vitro(More)
Due to the high mortality incident brought about by traumatic brain injury (TBI), methods that would enable one to better understand the underlying mechanisms involved in it are useful for treatment. There are both in vivo and in vitro methods available for this purpose. In vivo models can mimic actual head injury as it occurs during TBI. However, in vivo(More)
Epithelial and endothelial cells (EC) are building paracellular barriers which protect the tissue from the external and internal environment. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) consisting of EC, astrocyte end-feet, pericytes and the basal membrane is responsible for the protection and homeostasis of the brain parenchyma. In vitro BBB models are common tools to(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones that have inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects on a wide variety of cells. They are used as therapy for inflammatory disease and as a common agent against edema. The blood brain barrier (BBB), comprising microvascular endothelial cells, serves as a permeability screen between the blood and the brain. As such,(More)
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is a condition where bacteria stably colonize the urinary tract, in a manner closely resembling commensalism at other mucosal sites. The patients carry >10(5) CFU/ml for extended periods of time and rarely develop symptoms. Contrasting the properties of ABU strains to those of uropathogenic isolates causing symptomatic(More)
In this study, the ability of a multiwalled carbon nanotube functionalized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (MWCNT-FITC) was assessed as a prospective central nervous system-targeting drug delivery system to permeate the blood-brain barrier. The results indicated that the MWCNT-FITC conjugate is able to penetrate microvascular cerebral endothelial(More)
Bacterial pathogens with the ability to cause persistent infection have different strategies to withstand the induction of host immune responses and to successfully establish long-term colonization. In case of asymptomatic bacteriuria and other persistent infections, prolonged growth in the host is accompanied with genomic alterations that result in e.g.,(More)
Purpose of review Tight junctions (TJs) are specialized differentiations of epithelial and endothelial cell membranes. TJs play an important role in the adhesion of cells and their interaction with each other. Most cancers originate from epithelial cells. Thus, it is of significance to examine the role of TJs in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and how they(More)