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Interferons initiate the host antiviral response by inducing a number of genes, most with no defined antiviral function. Here we show that the interferon-induced protein viperin inhibits influenza A virus release from the plasma membrane of infected cells. Viperin expression altered plasma membrane fluidity by affecting the formation of lipid rafts, which(More)
Movement of individuals promotes colonization of new areas, gene flow among local populations, and has implications for the spread of infectious agents and the control of pest species. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are common in highly urbanized areas but surprisingly little is known of their population structure. We sampled individuals from 11(More)
CD8(+) T-cell responses are critical in the immunological control of tumours and infectious diseases. To prime CD8(+) T cells against these cell-associated antigens, exogenous antigens must be cross-presented by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). While cross-presentation of soluble antigens by dendritic cells is detectable in vivo, the efficiency(More)
Lipid droplets are intracellular lipid-storage organelles that are thought to be derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Several pathogens, notably hepatitis C virus, use lipid droplets for replication. Numerous questions remain about how lipid droplets are generated and used by viruses. Here we show that the IFN-induced antiviral protein viperin,(More)
Viperin is an evolutionarily conserved interferon-inducible protein that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and inhibits a number of DNA and RNA viruses. In this study, we report that viperin specifically localizes to the cytoplasmic face of the ER and that an amphipathic alpha-helix at its N terminus is necessary for the ER localization of viperin(More)
Viperin is an interferon-inducible protein that is directly induced in cells by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Why HCMV would induce viperin, which has antiviral activity, is unknown. We show that HCMV-induced viperin disrupts cellular metabolism to enhance the infectious process. Viperin interaction with the viral protein vMIA resulted in viperin(More)
Although most cells are thought to respond to IFNs, there is limited information regarding specific cells that respond in vivo. Viperin is an IFN-induced antiviral protein and, therefore, is an excellent marker for IFN-responsive cells. In this study, we analyzed viperin expression in vivo during acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Armstrong infection,(More)
With rising rates of drug-resistant infections, there is a need for diagnostic methods that rapidly can detect the presence of pathogens and reveal their susceptibility to antibiotics. Here we propose an approach to diagnosing the presence and drug-susceptibility of infectious diseases based on direct detection of RNA from clinical samples. We demonstrate(More)
RNase MRP is a conserved endoribonuclease, in humans consisting of a 267-nucleotide RNA associated with 7–10 proteins. Mutations in its RNA component lead to several autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasias, including cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH). Because the known substrates of mammalian RNase MRP, pre-ribosomal RNA, and RNA involved in mitochondrial DNA(More)
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