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Axonal growth cones that cross the nervous system midline change their responsiveness to midline guidance cues: They become repelled by the repellent Slit and simultaneously lose responsiveness to the attractant netrin. These mutually reinforcing changes help to expel growth cones from the midline by making a once-attractive environment appear repulsive.(More)
Netrins are bifunctional: they attract some axons and repel others. Netrin receptors of the Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) family are implicated in attraction and those of the UNC5 family in repulsion, but genetic evidence also suggests involvement of the DCC protein UNC-40 in some cases of repulsion. To test whether these proteins form a receptor(More)
Developing axons are guided to their targets by attractive and repulsive guidance cues. In the embryonic spinal cord, the floor plate chemoattractant Netrin-1 is required to guide commissural neuron axons to the midline. However, genetic evidence suggests that other chemoattractant(s) are also involved. We show that the morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh) can(More)
Netrins stimulate and orient axon growth through a mechanism requiring receptors of the DCC family. It has been unclear, however, whether DCC proteins are involved directly in signaling or are mere accessory proteins in a receptor complex. Further, although netrins bind cells expressing DCC, direct binding to DCC has not been demonstrated. Here we show that(More)
Plexins are receptors implicated in mediating signaling by semaphorins, a family of axonal chemorepellents. The role of specific plexins in mediating semaphorin function in vivo has not, however, yet been examined in vertebrates. Here, we show that plexin-A3 is the most ubiquitously expressed plexin family member within regions of the developing mammalian(More)
In the developing nervous system, nerve cells and axons respond to various attractive and repulsive guidance cues while traveling to their final destination. Netrins are bifunctional guidance cues that attract several classes of axons but repel others. The response of an axon to netrins is dictated by the composition of netrin receptors on the cell surface(More)
Slit proteins have previously been shown to regulate axon guidance, branching, and neural migration. Here we report that, in addition to acting as a chemorepellant for cortical axons, Slit1 regulates dendritic development. Slit1 is expressed in the developing cortex, and exposure to Slit1 leads to increased dendritic growth and branching. Conversely,(More)
During nervous system development, spinal commissural axons project toward and across the ventral midline. They are guided in part by netrin-1, made by midline cells, which attracts the axons by activating the netrin receptor DCC. However, previous studies suggest that additional receptor components are required. Here, we report that the Down's syndrome(More)
Neuronal growth cones are guided to their targets by attractive and repulsive guidance cues. In mammals, netrin-1 is a bifunctional cue, attracting some axons and repelling others. Deleted in colorectal cancer (Dcc) is a receptor for netrin-1 that mediates its chemoattractive effect on commissural axons, but the signalling mechanisms that transduce this(More)
The development of many organs, including the lung, depends upon a process known as branching morphogenesis, in which a simple epithelial bud gives rise to a complex tree-like system of tubes specialized for the transport of gas or fluids. Previous studies on lung development have highlighted a role for fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), made by the(More)