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ADAM10 is involved in the proteolytic processing and shedding of proteins such as the amyloid precursor protein (APP), cadherins, and the Notch receptors, thereby initiating the regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of these proteins. Here, we demonstrate that the sheddase ADAM10 is also subject to RIP. We identify ADAM9 and -15 as the proteases(More)
The gamma-secretase complex is responsible for the proteolysis of integral membrane proteins. Nicastrin has been proposed to operate as the substrate receptor of the complex with the glutamate 332 (Glu(333) in human) serving as the anionic binding site for the alpha-amino-terminal group of substrates. The putative binding site is located within the(More)
Although soluble oligomeric and protofibrillar assemblies of Abeta-amyloid peptide cause synaptotoxicity and potentially contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD), the role of mature Abeta-fibrils in the amyloid plaques remains controversial. A widely held view in the field suggests that the fibrillization reaction proceeds 'forward' in a near-irreversible(More)
BACKGROUND Some inhalation anesthetics increase apoptotic cell death in the developing brain. Xenon, an inhalation anesthetic, increases neuroprotection when combined with therapeutic hypothermia after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in newborn animals. The authors, therefore, examined whether there was any neuroapoptotic effect of breathing 50% xenon with(More)
BACKGROUND Therapeutic hypothermia (HT) is the standard treatment after perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. Infection increases vulnerability to HI injury, but the effect of HT on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) sensitized HI brain injury is unknown. DESIGN/METHODS P7 rat pups were injected either with vehicle or LPS, and after a 4h delay they were exposed(More)
Therapeutic hypothermia (HT) is standard care for moderate and severe neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), the leading cause of permanent brain injury in term newborns. However, the optimal temperature for HT is still unknown, and few preclinical studies have compared multiple HT treatment temperatures. Additionally, HT may not benefit infants(More)
INTRODUCTION Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection prior to hypoxia-ischaemia significantly increases hypoxia-ischaemic brain injury in 7-day-old (P7) rats. In addition, therapeutic hypothermia (HT) is not neuroprotective in this setting. However, the mechanistic aspects of this therapeutic failure have yet to be elucidated. This study was designed(More)
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is associated with alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a result of perinatal asphyxia. The extent to whichCBFchanges contribute to injury, and whether treatments that ameliorate these changes might be neuroprotective, is still unknown. Higher throughput techniques to monitorCBFchanges in rodent models(More)
BACKGROUND Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is standard treatment following perinatal asphyxia in newborn infants. Experimentally, TH is neuroprotective after moderate hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in seven-day-old (P7) rats. However, TH is not neuroprotective after severe HI. After a moderate HI insult in newborn brain injury models, the anesthetic gas xenon (Xe)(More)
BACKGROUND Neuropathological examination is the classic outcome measure in experimental studies of newborn brain injury to evaluate novel therapies. We have used a graded neuropathology score in an established global model of perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) injury. We wished to validate the score using cell counting in our model. NEW METHOD 32 newborn(More)