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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes economic losses in the pig industry worldwide, and PRRS viruses (PRRSV) are classified into the two distinct genotypes "North American (NA, type 2)" and "European (EU, type 1)". In 2006, a highly pathogenic NA strain of PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), characterized by high fever as well as high morbidity and(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialised countries. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with domestic pig and wild boar. However, little is known about the course of HEV infection(More)
The potential role of wild birds as carriers of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 is still a matter of debate. Consecutive or simultaneous infections with different subtypes of influenza viruses of low pathogenicity (LPAIV) are very common in wild duck populations. To better understand the epidemiology and pathogenesis of HPAIV(More)
The approach of using an existing machine translation system in multilingual information retrieval, as usually proposed, consists of automatically translating queries, or even the entire textual database, from one language to another. The information that machine translation technology can provide to multilingual information retrieval has been more(More)
To determine susceptibility of chickens, turkeys, and mice to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, we conducted contact exposure and inoculation experiments. We demonstrated that chickens were refractory to infection. However, oculo-oronasally inoculated turkeys and intranasally inoculated mice seroconverted without clinical signs of infection.
Swine influenza viruses (SIV) regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn) oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing(More)
BACKGROUND Despite considerable host species barriers, interspecies transmissions of influenza A viruses between wild birds, poultry and pigs have been demonstrated repeatedly. In particular, viruses of the subtypes H1 and H3 were transmitted between pigs and poultry, predominantly turkeys, in regions with a high population density of both species. The(More)
Protection of pigs against pandemic swine origin H1N1 influenza A virus infection by hemagglutinin-or neuraminidase-expressing attenuated pseudorabies virus recombinants. The highly conserved proline at position 438 in Pseudorabies Virus gH is important for regulation of membrane fusion. J Virol [Epub ahead of print; Immunization of pigs with an attenuated(More)