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BACKGROUND Angiogenesis is essential for the replacement of cartilage by bone during skeletal growth and regeneration. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is a key regulator of angiogenesis whereas endostatin, a potent inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation and migration, is a natural antagonist of VEGF-A. The regulatory role of these(More)
A cDNA sequence of bone morphogenetic protein 3b (BMP-3b) of reindeer antler was produced with degenerative homology primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An in situ hybridization study of BMP-3b mRNA in 1-month-old antler showed expression in most differentiated cells in the antler center. In addition, the bone-inductive capacity of the reindeer(More)
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