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Although more than 320 cases of human ehrlichiosis have been diagnosed in 27 states since 1986, the reservoir host or hosts remain unknown. Since antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human ehrlichiosis, have been found in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), we experimentally evaluated the susceptibilities of four(More)
Survivin is a recently discovered protein belonging to the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family. IAP molecules are characterized by both the presence of a zinc-binding fold termed the baculoviral IAP repeat and the ability to suppress apoptosis. In addition to inhibiting apoptosis, survivin is essential for proper cell division. Survivin is expressed(More)
Avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence in wild aquatic bird populations varies with season, geographic location, host species, and age. It is not clear how age at infection affects the extent of viral shedding. To better understand the influence of age at infection on viral shedding of wild bird-origin low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses,(More)
Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma(More)
UNLABELLED Influenza is a global health concern, causing death, morbidity, and economic losses. Chemotherapeutics that target influenza virus are available; however, rapid emergence of drug-resistant strains is common. Therapeutic targeting of host proteins hijacked by influenza virus to facilitate replication is an antiviral strategy to reduce the(More)
Direct transmission of avian influenza viruses to mammals has become an increasingly investigated topic during the past decade; however, isolates that have been primarily investigated are typically ones originating from human or poultry outbreaks. Currently there is minimal comparative information on the behavior of the innumerable viruses that exist in the(More)
Recently, a novel ehrlichial organism was isolated from a raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the isolate (RAC413) was infectious to two naïve raccoons but not laboratory mice, rats or rabbits. In this study, amplification and sequencing of four gene targets (16S rRNA gene, groESL, gltA and rpoB) confirmed that the novel ehrlichial organism was a member of the(More)
Wild birds, particularly Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, are considered the natural reservoir of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. The high prevalence and subtype diversity of avian influenza viruses at premigrational staging areas provide the perfect opportunity for multiple exposures to different LPAI virus subtypes. Natural consecutive and(More)
The prevalence of infection with avian influenza (AI) virus varies significantly between taxonomic Orders and even between species within the same Order. The current understanding of AI infection and virus shedding parameters in wild birds is limited and largely based on trials conducted in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The objective of the present study(More)
Currently, prognostic and therapeutic determinations for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) are primarily based on histologic grade. However, the use of different grading systems by veterinary pathologists and institutional modifications make the prognostic value of histologic grading highly questionable. To evaluate the consistency of microscopic(More)