Elizabeth W. Howerth

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Although more than 320 cases of human ehrlichiosis have been diagnosed in 27 states since 1986, the reservoir host or hosts remain unknown. Since antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human ehrlichiosis, have been found in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), we experimentally evaluated the susceptibilities of four(More)
Currently, prognostic and therapeutic determinations for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) are primarily based on histologic grade. However, the use of different grading systems by veterinary pathologists and institutional modifications make the prognostic value of histologic grading highly questionable. To evaluate the consistency of microscopic(More)
We used tick cell culture to isolate a bacterium previously referred to as the "white-tailed deer (WTD) agent" from two captive fawns inoculated with blood from wild WTD (Odocoileus virginianus). Buffy coat cells were added to ISE6 tick cell cultures and incubated at 34 degrees C, and 8 days later, Anaplasma-like inclusions were demonstrated in(More)
Wild birds, particularly Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, are considered the natural reservoir of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. The high prevalence and subtype diversity of avian influenza viruses at premigrational staging areas provide the perfect opportunity for multiple exposures to different LPAI virus subtypes. Natural consecutive and(More)
Mallards are important natural hosts involved in the epidemiology of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs). LPAIVs are mainly transmitted by a fecal-oral route and are excreted in high concentrations in the feces. We investigated the pathology, viral antigen distribution, and the expression of alpha2,3 sialic acid (SA) influenza virus receptors in(More)
Survivin is a recently discovered protein belonging to the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family. IAP molecules are characterized by both the presence of a zinc-binding fold termed the baculoviral IAP repeat and the ability to suppress apoptosis. In addition to inhibiting apoptosis, survivin is essential for proper cell division. Survivin is expressed(More)
The role of hematophagous arthropods in vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey serotype; VSV-NJ) transmission during epizootics has remained unclear for decades in part because it has never been shown that clinical or subclinical disease in a livestock host results from the bite of an infected insect. In this study, we investigated the ability of(More)
Recently, a novel ehrlichial organism was isolated from a raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the isolate (RAC413) was infectious to two naïve raccoons but not laboratory mice, rats or rabbits. In this study, amplification and sequencing of four gene targets (16S rRNA gene, groESL, gltA and rpoB) confirmed that the novel ehrlichial organism was a member of the(More)
Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoirs for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Although they are often infected with multiple AI viruses, the significance and extent of acquired immunity in these populations is not understood. Pre-existing immunity to AI virus has been shown to modulate the outcome of a highly(More)
UNLABELLED Influenza is a global health concern, causing death, morbidity, and economic losses. Chemotherapeutics that target influenza virus are available; however, rapid emergence of drug-resistant strains is common. Therapeutic targeting of host proteins hijacked by influenza virus to facilitate replication is an antiviral strategy to reduce the(More)