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Although more than 320 cases of human ehrlichiosis have been diagnosed in 27 states since 1986, the reservoir host or hosts remain unknown. Since antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human ehrlichiosis, have been found in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), we experimentally evaluated the susceptibilities of four(More)
Survivin is a recently discovered protein belonging to the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family. IAP molecules are characterized by both the presence of a zinc-binding fold termed the baculoviral IAP repeat and the ability to suppress apoptosis. In addition to inhibiting apoptosis, survivin is essential for proper cell division. Survivin is expressed(More)
UNLABELLED Influenza is a global health concern, causing death, morbidity, and economic losses. Chemotherapeutics that target influenza virus are available; however, rapid emergence of drug-resistant strains is common. Therapeutic targeting of host proteins hijacked by influenza virus to facilitate replication is an antiviral strategy to reduce the(More)
Avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence in wild aquatic bird populations varies with season, geographic location, host species, and age. It is not clear how age at infection affects the extent of viral shedding. To better understand the influence of age at infection on viral shedding of wild bird-origin low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses,(More)
Avian influenza (AI) viruses have been detected in more than 105 wild bird species from 12 different orders but species-related differences in susceptibility to AI viruses exist. Expression of α2,3-linked (avian-type) and α2,6-linked (human-type) sialic acid (SA) influenza virus receptors in tissues is considered one of the determinants of the host range(More)
Currently, prognostic and therapeutic determinations for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) are primarily based on histologic grade. However, the use of different grading systems by veterinary pathologists and institutional modifications make the prognostic value of histologic grading highly questionable. To evaluate the consistency of microscopic(More)
The role of hematophagous arthropods in vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey serotype; VSV-NJ) transmission during epizootics has remained unclear for decades in part because it has never been shown that clinical or subclinical disease in a livestock host results from the bite of an infected insect. In this study, we investigated the ability of(More)
Parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV5), formerly known as simian virus 5 (SV5), is a non-segmented negative strand RNA virus that offers several advantages as a vaccine vector. PIV5 infects many cell types causing little cytopathic effect, it replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells, and does not have a DNA phase in its life cycle thus avoiding the(More)
Two domestic shorthair cats presented for clinical signs related to multifocal central nervous system dysfunction. Both cats had signs of vestibular system involvement and anisocoria, and one had generalized seizure activity. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a neutrophilic pleocytosis with protein elevation in one cat and pyogranulomatous inflammation(More)
Hemorrhagic disease, caused by various serotypes of two closely related orbivirus serogroups, the epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDV) and the bluetongue viruses (BTV), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in white-tailed deer (WTD) in the United States. Despite the importance of hemorrhagic disease in WTD, little is known about host defense(More)