Elizabeth Votta Bleeker

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Pain from vaccine injections is common, and concerns about pain contribute to vaccine hesitancy across the lifespan.1,2 Noncompliance with vaccination compromises the individual and community benefits of immunization by contributing to outbreaks of vaccinepreventable diseases. Individuals may also engage in broader noncompliant behaviours if they acquire a(More)
Needle fear typically begins in childhood and represents an important health-related issue across the lifespan. Individuals who are highly fearful of needles frequently avoid health care. Although guidance exists for managing needle pain and fear during procedures, the most highly fearful may refuse or abstain from such procedures. The purpose of a clinical(More)
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