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Habits are characterized by an insensitivity to their consequences and, as such, can be distinguished from goal-directed actions. The neural basis of the development of demonstrably outcome-insensitive habitual actions in humans has not been previously characterized. In this experiment, we show that extensive training on a free-operant task reduces the(More)
Research has increasingly implicated the striatum in the processing of reward-related information in both animals and humans. However, it is unclear whether human striatal activation is driven solely by the hedonic properties of rewards or whether such activation is reliant on other factors, such as anticipation of upcoming reward or performance of an(More)
The distributions of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were investigated in four songbird species that differ in their food-storing behavior. The food-storing black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus) was compared to the non-storing blue tit (Parus caeruleus) and great tit (Parus major) within the avian family Paridae, as well as(More)
Adults have difficulty discriminating nonnative phonetic contrasts, but under certain circumstances training can lead to improvement in this ability. Despite the ubiquitous use of performance feedback in training paradigms in this and many other domains, the mechanisms by which feedback affects learning are not well understood. In this event-related(More)
A popular hypothesis in the social sciences is that humans have social preferences to reduce inequality in outcome distributions because it has a negative impact on their experienced reward. Although there is a large body of behavioural and anthropological evidence consistent with the predictions of these theories, there is no direct neural evidence for the(More)
The striatum has been shown to be a key region in the processing of reward-related information. The head of the caudate nucleus has been implicated in processing performance feedback, or in other words, information about the outcomes of one's actions. However, feedback provides multiple types of information, and it is not clear which of these types of(More)
Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current(More)
Contingency theories of goal-directed action propose that experienced disjunctions between an action and its specific consequences, as well as conjunctions between these events, contribute to encoding the action-outcome association. Although considerable behavioral research in rats and humans has provided evidence for this proposal, relatively little is(More)
For the consequences of our actions to guide behavior, the brain must represent different types of outcome-related information. For example, an outcome can be construed as negative because an expected reward was not delivered or because an outcome of low value was delivered. Thus behavioral consequences can differ in terms of the information they provide(More)
studies have not examined the extent to which the dorsal 3 Department of Psychology and ventral striatum are activated in response to dis-New York University plays indicating monetary rewards and punishments New York, New York 10003 presented unpredictably in time. However, there is evidence that randomly presented primary rewards elicit striatal(More)