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Most mouse models of hepatocellular carcinoma have expressed growth factors and oncogenes under the control of a liver-specific promoter. In contrast, we describe here the formation of liver tumors in transgenic mice overexpressing human fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) in skeletal muscle. FGF19 transgenic mice had elevated hepatic alpha-fetoprotein mRNA(More)
Hormonal control of metabolic rate can be important in regulating the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure that underlies the development of obesity. In mice fed a high-fat diet, human fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) increased metabolic rate [1.53 +/- 0.06 liters O(2)/h.kg(0.75) (vehicle) vs. 1.93 +/- 0.05 liters O(2)/h.kg(0.75) (FGF19); P <(More)
The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), and the corresponding receptors, are implicated in more than just the regulation of epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Specifically, FGF23 is a regulator of serum inorganic phosphate levels, and mice deficient in FGF receptor-4 have altered cholesterol metabolism. The recently described FGF19 is unusual(More)
Besides stimulating GH release, some GH secretagogues also release ACTH and adrenal steroids. Several novel classes of potent GH secretagogues have recently been described, and we have now tested their ability to release corticosterone in conscious normal rats. All analogs that released GH also stimulated corticosterone release to some degree, though the(More)
Absence of the hormone leptin leads to dramatic increases in appetite, food intake, and adiposity. The primary site of action, at least with respect to appetite, is the hypothalamus. Leptin also has significant effects on the function(s) of peripheral organs involved in maintaining body composition. Some of these effects are mediated through direct(More)
IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) is a 70-residue protein hormone which has both metabolic and mitogenic activities mediated through IGF-1 binding to cell surface receptors. However, an unrelated class of proteins, the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) also bind IGF-1 in the serum and tissues and block or modulate its activity in vivo. Therefore, inhibitors(More)
The tricyclic antidepressant, desmethylimipramine (DMI), a highly selective inhibitor of presynaptic uptake of norepinephrine (NE), has also been shown to reduce [125I]3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) uptake in rat brain synaptosomes. Using DMI as a probe to examine 1) possible noradrenergic influences on thyroid hormone (TH) actions in brain and 2)(More)
A novel series of spirocyclic derivatives was synthesized and evaluated as NPY Y5R antagonists for the treatment of obesity. Cis and trans analogs 7a and 8a were equipotent in a Y5R binding assay (K(i)'s ≤ 1 nM) and displayed good stability in human and rat liver microsome preparations. Compound 7a failed to demonstrate weight loss activity in a(More)
We have studied the effects of desmethylimipramine (DMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, on thyroid hormone (TH) handling in rat brain in an effort to discover a pharmacological basis for reported interactions between TH, affective disorders and psychotropic drugs. An acute dose of DMI has been used in order to determine the primary effects of the drug in(More)