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OBJECTIVE To develop an index of overall diet quality. DESIGN The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was developed based on a 10-component system of five food groups, four nutrients, and a measure of variety in food intake. Each of the 10 components has a score ranging from 0 to 10, so the total possible index score is 100. METHODS/SUBJECTS Data from the 1989(More)
OBJECTIVE Both insulin resistance (IR) and decreased insulin secretion have been shown to predict the development of NIDDM. However, methods to assess insulin sensitivity and secretion are complicated and expensive to apply in epidemiological studies. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) has been suggested as a method to assess IR and secretion from the(More)
Introduction Weight loss is a major concern for the US population. Surveys consistently show that most adults are trying to lose or maintain weight (1). Nevertheless, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased steadily over the past 30 years. Currently, 50% of all adult Americans are considered overweight or obese (2,3). These numbers have(More)
BACKGROUND Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) are an increasingly frequent and devastating complication of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Currently, the optimal management of LM in ALK-positive patients remains poorly understood as these patients have been routinely excluded from clinical trials. METHODS We(More)
OBJECTIVE This article looks at the food group choices by individuals grouped based on fat intake, saturated fat intake, and use of lowfat foods. METHODS Food consumption data from USDA's National Food Consumption Surveys (NFCS) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) were used to look at changes in the mean energy, percent(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the association between a range of health and nutrition indicators and popular diets. DESIGN The Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) 1994-1996 data were used to examine the relationship between prototype popular diets and diet quality as measured by the healthy eating index (HEI), consumption patterns, and body(More)
A major diet-related problem in the US has changed from growth retardation to childhood obesity. This paper compares the consumption patterns of children using data from nationally representative surveys conducted by the US Department of Agriculture from 1986 to 1994. Children's consumption patterns were analyzed by age groups, income groups and food(More)
BACKGROUND Pelvic fractures, lower extremity injuries, acute head or spinal injury, and extended bedrest place trauma patients at an increased risk for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). We reviewed patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI), spinal cord injuries (SCI), and lower extremity fractures (LEF) to examine our DVT and PE(More)
It has been proposed that the clinical accuracy of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) is affected by the interaction of distortion and reflection sources contributing to the response. This study evaluated changes in dichotomous-decision test performance and threshold-prediction accuracy when DPOAE source contribution was controlled. Data were(More)