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Tyrant flycatchers comprise the largest group of passerine birds of the Neotropical region but their retinal organization is unknown. The great kiskadee, Pitangus sulphuratus, is categorized as a supreme generalist and utilizes a variety of foraging strategies. The rusty margined flycatcher, Myiozetetes cayanensis, is partially frugivorous and captures(More)
The tyrant flycatchers represent a monophyletic radiation of predominantly insectivorous passerine birds that exhibit a plethora of stereotyped prey capture techniques. However, little is known about their retinal organization. Using retinal wholemounts, we estimated the total number and topography of neurons in the ganglion cell layer in the generalist(More)
We have estimated photoreceptor convergence to M and P retinal ganglion cells of two closely related nocturnal (owl monkey, Aotus) and diurnal (capuchin monkey, Cebus) anthropoids. Rod convergence is higher in the owl monkey retina while cone convergence to both M and P cells are very similar in the retinas of the owl monkey and the capuchin monkey. These(More)
To describe the wide-field ganglion cells, they were injected intracellularly with Neurobiotin using an in vitro preparation of macaque retina and labeled with streptavidin-Cy3. The retinas were then labeled with antibodies to choline acetyltransferase and other markers to indicate the depth of the dendrites within the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and(More)
Fish of the genus Anableps (Anablepidae, Cyprinodontiformes) have eyes that are adapted for simultaneous aerial and aquatic vision. In this study we investigate some of the corresponding retinal specializations of the adult Anableps anableps eye using retinal transverse sections and wholemounts. The linear dimensions of the retina were found to be(More)
Neural systems are necessarily the adaptive products of natural selection, but a neural system, dedicated to any particular function in a complex brain, may be composed of components that covary with functionally unrelated systems, owing to constraints beyond immediate functional requirements. Some studies support a modular or mosaic organization of the(More)
Starburst amacrine cells in the macaque retina were studied by electron microscopic immunohistochemistry. We found that these amacrine cells make a type of synapse not described previously; they are presynaptic to axon terminals of bipolar cells. We also confirmed that starburst amacrine cells are presynaptic to ganglion cell dendrites and amacrine cell(More)
P/midget ganglion cells mediate red-green color opponency in anthropoids. It has been proposed that these cells evolved as a specialization to subserve color vision in primates. If that is correct, they must have evolved about the same time as the long-wavelength ('red') and medium-wavelength ('green') pigment genes diverged, thirty million years ago.(More)
Diurnal platyrrhines, both di- and trichromats, have magnocellular (M-) and parvocellular (P-) retinal ganglion cells which are morphologically very similar to those found in catarrhines. Catarrhine central P ganglion cells contact single midget bipolar cells, which contact single cones. Physiological recordings of retinal ganglion cells of dichromatic(More)