Elizabeth Sumi Yamada

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Tyrant flycatchers comprise the largest group of passerine birds of the Neotropical region but their retinal organization is unknown. The great kiskadee, Pitangus sulphuratus, is categorized as a supreme generalist and utilizes a variety of foraging strategies. The rusty margined flycatcher, Myiozetetes cayanensis, is partially frugivorous and captures(More)
The tyrant flycatchers represent a monophyletic radiation of predominantly insectivorous passerine birds that exhibit a plethora of stereotyped prey capture techniques. However, little is known about their retinal organization. Using retinal wholemounts, we estimated the total number and topography of neurons in the ganglion cell layer in the generalist(More)
Neural systems are necessarily the adaptive products of natural selection, but a neural system, dedicated to any particular function in a complex brain, may be composed of components that covary with functionally unrelated systems, owing to constraints beyond immediate functional requirements. Some studies support a modular or mosaic organization of the(More)
In the primate retina there are distinct ganglion cell classes, exhibiting particular morphologies and central projections, each responsible for conveying particular types of visual information to the brain. The chief retinal inputs to the cortex arise from specific ganglion cell classes, M-ganglion cells, responsible for carrying the luminance signal, and(More)
The distribution of ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells was determined in whole-mounted Aotus retinae. In contrast to diurnal simians, Aotus has only a rudimentary fovea. Ganglion cell density decreases towards the periphery at approximately the same rate along all meridians, but is 1.2-1.8 times higher in the nasal periphery when compared to(More)
1. The genetic basis of colour vision in New-World primates differs from that in humans and other Old-World primates. Most New-World primate species show a polymorphism; all males are dichromats and most females trichromats. 2. In the retina of Old-World primates such as the macaque, the physiological correlates of trichromacy are well established.(More)
Male Cebus monkeys are all dichromats, but about two thirds of the females are trichromats. M and P retinal ganglion cells were studied in the male Cebus monkey to investigate the relationship of their morphology to retinal eccentricity. Retinal ganglion cells were retrogradely labeled after optic nerve deposits of biocytin to reveal their entire dendritic(More)
M and P retinal ganglion cell morphology revealed by biocytin retrograde labelling was compared in two closely related New-World monkeys, Cebus and Aotus, to investigate whether nocturnal and diurnal species of primates have similar cell classes. Monkey and cat ganglion cells from regions of matching cell class densities were also compared. Cat alpha, cat(More)
The foveal specializations of five New World monkeys, the marmoset, Callithrix jacchus; the golden-handed tamarin, Saguinus midas niger; the squirrel monkey, Saimiri ustius; the capuchin monkey, Cebus apella; and the howler monkey, Alouatta caraya were compared. Although retinal area varies by over a factor of two in these monkeys, the area of the fovea(More)