Elizabeth Stokes

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OBJECTIVES Control of infectious diseases in developing countries often requires using drugs that are contraindicated during pregnancy. Avoiding inadvertent exposure to drugs involves women (a) recognising pregnancy early, (b) disclosing the pregnancy to health workers and (c) using medicines in an informed manner. We explored these factors to inform and(More)
An extracorporeal "closed-loop" system has been employed to maintain glycemia in the normal range during consumption of meals in nine insulin-treated diabetics. This artificial pancreas system incorporated continuous blood glucose monitoring (0.05 ml. per minute, delay time 90 seconds), a computer programed to respond to glycemia, and a hormone delivery(More)
The artificial endocrine pancreas (AEP) can normalize glycemia at rest and with meals. To determine whether insulin, glucagon, and amino acid profiles are also normalized, nine diabetics on subcutaneous insulin (S/C) and AEP control were compared to ten normal controls (NC). Glycemia was monitored continuously over 10 hr during which meals were consumed.(More)
BACKGROUND The use of most anti-malarial medications is restricted during pregnancy, but two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine are recommended after the first trimester as intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp). In The Gambia, only 32% of women receive two doses and very little research has been conducted on women's awareness of drug safety(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the clinical and economic efficacy of an on-site support group for drug-abusing pregnant women enrolled in an urban, hospital-based obstetric clinic. STUDY DESIGN Maternal and neonatal outcomes and medical cost data were compared for drug-abusing pregnant women who attended (n = 54) and did not attend (n = 67) a weekly substance abuse(More)
OBJECTIVES We assessed the economic and clinical implications of systematic long-term nutrition team follow-up of patients after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. METHODS We designed a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blind trial in a large district hospital and its catchment area. All adult patients referred for a gastrostomy were eligible(More)
BACKGROUND Fecal contamination is a major challenge in patients in acute/critical care settings that is associated with increased cost of care and supplies and with development of pressure ulcers, incontinence dermatitis, skin and soft tissue infections, and urinary tract infections. OBJECTIVES To assess the economic impact of fecal containment in(More)
SUMMARY The artificial endocrine pancreas was adapted to assist with the intraoperative localization of an insulin-secreting islet cell adenoma in a 23-year-old patient with a five-month history of hypoglycemic attacks. Glycemia was monitored in continuously withdrawn whole blood, and dextrose was infused to maintain euglycemia by an artificial endocrine(More)
The responses to moderate exercise of circulating energy fuels and endocrine pancreatic hormones were examined in insulin-dependent diabetics receiving insulin either sc or by continuous iv infusion. Eight subjects received one-third of their usual daily insulin doses sc in the thigh 1 h prior to exercise. Seven subjects exercised during infusion (iv) of(More)