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Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with diabetes have a raised risk of stroke, but it is unclear whether sustained hyperglycaemia contributes to the development of cerebrovascular disease. Haemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)), a measure of long-term glycaemia, is strongly related to retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in diabetes. We sought to assess the association between(More)
OBJECTIVE Glycated hemoglobin was recently recommended for use as a diagnostic test for diabetes. We examined the association between 2010 American Diabetes Association diagnostic cut points for glycated hemoglobin and microvascular outcomes (chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease [ESRD], and retinopathy) and formally tested for the presence of(More)
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptors are strongly implicated in the development of diabetes complications. When stimulated by AGEs, the receptors for AGEs (RAGEs) induce inflammation and are thought to fuel disease progression. Soluble circulating RAGE (sRAGE) may counteract the detrimental effects of RAGE. We measured sRAGE in stored(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined the association between high blood pressure and incident type 2 diabetes in African Americans and whites aged 35-54 years at baseline. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We combined data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, and the Framingham Heart(More)
OBJECTIVE Although variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene are consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, large population-based studies of African Americans are lacking. Moreover, few studies have investigated the effects of TCF7L2 on type 2 diabetes in the context of metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND(More)
Contrary to the hypothesis that the racial/ethnic disparity in prostate cancer has a hormonal basis, we did not observe a difference in serum testosterone concentration between non-Hispanic black and white men in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), although non-Hispanic black men had a higher estradiol level.(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship of diabetes and functional disability in older adults and the possible mediating roles of comorbidities and A1C. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 6,097 participants aged >or=60 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006. Diabetes was(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of elevated A1C in a large, nationally representative sample of adults without diabetes in the U.S. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data from 15,934 participants aged >or=20 years without diagnosed diabetes who had A1C measurements in the 1999-2006 National Health and(More)
OBJECTIVE Although A1C is now recommended to diagnose diabetes, its test performance for diagnosis and prognosis is uncertain. Our objective was to assess the test performance of A1C against single and repeat glucose measurements for diagnosis of prevalent diabetes and for prediction of incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted(More)