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BACKGROUND The extent to which diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia is related to risk of death from cancer or other nonvascular conditions is uncertain. METHODS We calculated hazard ratios for cause-specific death, according to baseline diabetes status or fasting glucose level, from individual-participant data on 123,205 deaths among 820,900 people in 97(More)
CONTEXT The prevalence and incidence of kidney failure treated by dialysis and transplantation in the United States have increased from 1988 to 2004. Whether there have been changes in the prevalence of earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) during this period is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To update the estimated prevalence of CKD in the United States.(More)
BACKGROUND Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and is an important marker of subclinical coronary heart disease. However, estimates of PAD prevalence in the general US population have varied widely. METHODS AND RESULTS We analyzed data from 2174 participants aged 40 years and older from the 1999-2000(More)
BACKGROUND In persons with diabetes, chronic hyperglycemia (assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin level) is related to the development of microvascular disease; however, the relation of glycosylated hemoglobin to macrovascular disease is less clear. PURPOSE To conduct a meta-analysis of observational studies of the association between glycosylated(More)
BACKGROUND Lead and cadmium exposure may promote atherosclerosis, although the cardiovascular effects of chronic low-dose exposure are largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between blood levels of lead and cadmium and peripheral arterial disease. METHODS AND RESULTS We analyzed data from 2125 participants who(More)
Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and(More)
BACKGROUND Fasting glucose is the standard measure used to diagnose diabetes in the United States. Recently, glycated hemoglobin was also recommended for this purpose. METHODS We compared the prognostic value of glycated hemoglobin and fasting glucose for identifying adults at risk for diabetes or cardiovascular disease. We measured glycated hemoglobin in(More)
BACKGROUND Short-term variability in measures of glycemia has important implications for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and the conduct and interpretation of epidemiologic studies. Our objectives were to characterize the within-person variability in fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and to assess the impact of using(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic hyperglycemia has been hypothesized to contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD), but the extent to which hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) level, a marker of long-term glycemic control, is independently related to CHD risk is uncertain. METHODS We conducted a prospective case-cohort study of 1321 adults without diabetes and a cohort study of(More)
Cardiovascular disease risk factor control as primary prevention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus has changed substantially in the past few years. The purpose of this scientific statement is to review the current literature and key clinical trials pertaining to blood pressure and blood glucose control, cholesterol management, aspirin therapy, and(More)