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BACKGROUND Lead and cadmium exposure may promote atherosclerosis, although the cardiovascular effects of chronic low-dose exposure are largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between blood levels of lead and cadmium and peripheral arterial disease. METHODS AND RESULTS We analyzed data from 2125 participants who(More)
Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and(More)
BACKGROUND Fasting glucose is the standard measure used to diagnose diabetes in the United States. Recently, glycated hemoglobin was also recommended for this purpose. METHODS We compared the prognostic value of glycated hemoglobin and fasting glucose for identifying adults at risk for diabetes or cardiovascular disease. We measured glycated hemoglobin in(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with diabetes have a raised risk of stroke, but it is unclear whether sustained hyperglycaemia contributes to the development of cerebrovascular disease. Haemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)), a measure of long-term glycaemia, is strongly related to retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in diabetes. We sought to assess the association between(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic hyperglycemia has been hypothesized to contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD), but the extent to which hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) level, a marker of long-term glycemic control, is independently related to CHD risk is uncertain. METHODS We conducted a prospective case-cohort study of 1321 adults without diabetes and a cohort study of(More)
OBJECTIVE Glycated hemoglobin was recently recommended for use as a diagnostic test for diabetes. We examined the association between 2010 American Diabetes Association diagnostic cut points for glycated hemoglobin and microvascular outcomes (chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease [ESRD], and retinopathy) and formally tested for the presence of(More)
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptors are strongly implicated in the development of diabetes complications. When stimulated by AGEs, the receptors for AGEs (RAGEs) induce inflammation and are thought to fuel disease progression. Soluble circulating RAGE (sRAGE) may counteract the detrimental effects of RAGE. We measured sRAGE in stored(More)
OBJECTIVE Although variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene are consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, large population-based studies of African Americans are lacking. Moreover, few studies have investigated the effects of TCF7L2 on type 2 diabetes in the context of metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND(More)
OBJECTIVE Low levels of androgens in men may play a role in the development of diabetes; however, few studies have examined the association between androgen concentration and diabetes in men in the general population. The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that low normal levels of total, free, and bioavailable testosterone are associated(More)