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BACKGROUND Observational studies have generated conflicting evidence on the effects of moderate maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on offspring cognition mainly reflecting problems of confounding. Among mothers who drink during pregnancy fetal alcohol exposure is influenced not only by mother's intake but also by genetic variants carried by both(More)
OBJECTIVE To produce current data on survival of preterm infants. DESIGN Retrospective population based study. SETTING Trent health region. SUBJECTS All European and Asian live births, stillbirths, and late fetal losses from 22 to 32 weeks' gestation, excluding those with major congenital malformations, in women resident in the Trent health region(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine survival and neonatal morbidity for babies born between 22 and 26 weeks' gestation in England during 2006, and to evaluate changes in outcome since 1995 for babies born between 22 and 25 weeks' gestation. DESIGN Prospective national cohort studies. SETTING Maternity and neonatal units in England. PARTICIPANTS 3133 births between(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine outcomes at age 3 years in babies born before 27 completed weeks' gestation in 2006, and to evaluate changes in outcome since 1995 for babies born between 22 and 25 weeks' gestation. DESIGN Prospective national cohort studies, EPICure and EPICure 2. SETTING Hospital and home based evaluations, England. PARTICIPANTS 1031(More)
STUDY QUESTION What are the long term trends in the total (live births, fetal deaths, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly) and live birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD) in Europe, where many countries have issued recommendations for folic acid supplementation but a policy for mandatory folic acid fortification of food does not exist? (More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have described the perinatal risks associated with infertility, other than for infertility treated by in-vitro fertilisation or gamete intrafallopian transfer. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the risks of perinatal death associated with treated and untreated infertility. METHODS A population-based case-control study of(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for 10 geographically defined European regions during 2003, followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS All deliveries from 22 + 0 to 31 + 6 weeks' gestation. (More)
BACKGROUND There is substantial debate as to whether moderate alcohol use during pregnancy could have subtle but important effects on offspring, by impairing later cognitive function and thus school performance. The authors aimed to investigate the unconfounded effect of moderately increased prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive/educational performance. (More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence of positive screens using the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) questionnaire and follow-up interview in late and moderately preterm (LMPT; 32-36 weeks) infants and term-born controls. STUDY DESIGN Population-based prospective cohort study of 1130 LMPT and 1255 term-born infants. Parents completed the(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate socioeconomic inequalities in outcome of pregnancy and neonatal mortality associated with congenital anomalies. DESIGN Retrospective population based registry study. SETTING East Midlands and South Yorkshire regions of England (representing about 10% of births in England and Wales). PARTICIPANTS All registered cases of nine(More)