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Recently, we demonstrated that human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) treated with chloroquine or ammonium chloride had markedly increased antifungal activity against the AIDS-related pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Both of these agents raise the lysosomal pH, which suggested that the increased antifungal activity was a function of alkalinizing the(More)
Human platelets stimulated by epinephrine undergo enhanced turnover of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, accumulate inositol trisphosphate, diacylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid, and phosphorylate a 47-kDa protein. All of these phenomena indicate stimulation of phospholipase C. These responses are blocked completely by inhibitors of alpha 2-adrenergic(More)
We describe a new method for subcellular fractionation of human neutrophils. Neutrophils were disrupted by nitrogen cavitation and the nuclei removed by centrifugation. The postnuclear supernatant was applied on top of a discontinuous Percoll density gradient. Centrifugation for 15 min at 48,000 g resulted in complete separation of plasma membranes,(More)
CD14 is a signaling receptor for both gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) that lacks terminal mannosyl units (AraLAM). In contrast, terminally mannosylated LAM (ManLAM) binds the macrophage mannose receptor (MMRc), although the ability of the MMRc to serve as a signaling receptor has not been previously(More)
It has long been appreciated that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) kill Cryptococcus neoformans, at least in part via generation of fungicidal oxidants. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of nonoxidative mechanisms to the inhibition and killing of C. neoformans. Treatment of human PMN with inhibitors and scavengers of respiratory burst(More)
Removal of calcium from thrombospondin with EDTA results in a decrease in the intensity of the negative CD peak between 200 and 250 nm. Quantitative analysis of the CD spectrum of thrombospondin indicates that thrombospondin contains approximately 11% alpha-helix, 43% beta-sheet, and 46% random coil in the presence of calcium and that a small change in(More)
Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (A beta PP) results in the generation of the amyloidogenic fragment known as amyloid beta peptide (A beta). Deposition of A beta in the brain parenchyma and cerebrovasculature is a feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, the process whereby A beta is generated and deposited remains unclear. We have(More)
Exploration class human spaceflight missions will require astronauts with robust immune systems. Innate immunity will be an essential element for the healthcare maintenance of astronauts during these lengthy expeditions. This study investigated neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and degranulation of 25 astronauts after four space shuttle missions and(More)
In the current environment of diverse product pipelines, rapidly fluctuating market demands and growing competition from biosimilars, biotechnology companies are increasingly driven to develop innovative solutions for highly flexible and cost-effective manufacturing. To address these challenging demands, integrated continuous processing, comprised of(More)
Neutropenia is considered a significant risk factor for invasive aspergillosis but is almost always associated with concurrent thrombocytopenia. Studies determined that platelets, like neutrophils, attached to cell walls of the invasive hyphal form of Aspergillus fumigatus. Organisms were damaged as shown by loss of cell wall integrity in scanning laser(More)