Elizabeth R Simons

Learn More
We describe a new method for subcellular fractionation of human neutrophils. Neutrophils were disrupted by nitrogen cavitation and the nuclei removed by centrifugation. The postnuclear supernatant was applied on top of a discontinuous Percoll density gradient. Centrifugation for 15 min at 48,000 g resulted in complete separation of plasma membranes,(More)
Human platelets stimulated by epinephrine undergo enhanced turnover of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, accumulate inositol trisphosphate, diacylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid, and phosphorylate a 47-kDa protein. All of these phenomena indicate stimulation of phospholipase C. These responses are blocked completely by inhibitors of alpha 2-adrenergic(More)
Recently, we demonstrated that human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) treated with chloroquine or ammonium chloride had markedly increased antifungal activity against the AIDS-related pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Both of these agents raise the lysosomal pH, which suggested that the increased antifungal activity was a function of alkalinizing the(More)
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of host defense due to the inability of the phagocyte to generate toxic oxygen metabolites upon appropriate stimulation. The disorder is heterogeneous even within the confines of a defective respiratory burst oxidase function, and may arise from a biochemical lesion at either the receptor, the(More)
Exploration class human spaceflight missions will require astronauts with robust immune systems. Innate immunity will be an essential element for the healthcare maintenance of astronauts during these lengthy expeditions. This study investigated neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and degranulation of 25 astronauts after four space shuttle missions and(More)
It has long been appreciated that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) kill Cryptococcus neoformans, at least in part via generation of fungicidal oxidants. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of nonoxidative mechanisms to the inhibition and killing of C. neoformans. Treatment of human PMN with inhibitors and scavengers of respiratory burst(More)
Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (A beta PP) results in the generation of the amyloidogenic fragment known as amyloid beta peptide (A beta). Deposition of A beta in the brain parenchyma and cerebrovasculature is a feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, the process whereby A beta is generated and deposited remains unclear. We have(More)
As part of the systematic evaluation of the innate immune system for long duration missions, this study focused on the antimicrobial functions of monocytes in astronauts participating in spaceflight. The study included four space shuttle missions and 25 astronauts. Nine non-astronauts served as controls. Blood specimens were collected 10 days before launch,(More)
Neutropenia is considered a significant risk factor for invasive aspergillosis but is almost always associated with concurrent thrombocytopenia. Studies determined that platelets, like neutrophils, attached to cell walls of the invasive hyphal form of Aspergillus fumigatus. Organisms were damaged as shown by loss of cell wall integrity in scanning laser(More)