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The choline binding proteins (CBPs) are a family of surface proteins noncovalently bound to the phosphorylcholine moiety of the cell wall of Streptococcus pneumoniae by a conserved choline binding domain. Six new members of this family were identified, and these six plus two recently described cell wall hydrolases, LytB and LytC, were characterized for(More)
OBJECTIVE Dendritic cells (DC) mediate intestinal immune tolerance. Despite striking differences between the colon and the ileum both in function and bacterial load, few studies distinguish between properties of immune cells in these compartments. Furthermore, information of gut DC in humans is scarce. We aimed to characterise human colonic versus ileal DC.(More)
BACKGROUND Dendritic cells regulate immune responses to microbial products and play a key role in ulcerative colitis (UC) pathology. We determined the immunomodulatory effects of probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on human DC from healthy controls and active UC patients. METHODS Human blood DC from healthy controls (control-DC) and UC(More)
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection, where efficacy correlates with changes in microbiota diversity and composition. The effects of FMT on recipient microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) remain unclear. We assessed the effects of FMT on microbiota composition and function,(More)
Since 2006, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society heart failure (HF) guidelines have published annual focused updates for cardiovascular care providers. The 2010 Canadian Cardiovascular Society HF guidelines update focuses on an increasing issue in the western world - HF in ethnic minorities - and in an uncommon but important setting - the pregnant patient.(More)
: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease is incompletely understood but results from a dysregulated intestinal immune response to the luminal microbiota. CD4 T cells mediate tissue injury in the inflammatory bowel disease-associated immune response. Dendritic cells (DC) generate primary T-cell responses and mediate intestinal immune tolerance to(More)
The intestinal immune system maintains a delicate balance between immunogenicity against invading pathogens and tolerance of the commensal microbiota. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves a breakdown in tolerance towards the microbiota. Dendritic cells (DC), macrophages (MΦ) and B-cells are known as professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) due to(More)
Heart failure is common, yet it is difficult to treat. It presents in many different guises and circumstances in which therapy needs to be individualized. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society published a comprehensive set of recommendations in January 2006 on the diagnosis and management of heart failure, and the present update builds on those core(More)
T-cell proliferation rates in vitro depend on factors including initial T-cell number, dose of stimulus, culture time, and available physical space. The role of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) in the identification of T cells with a regulatory phenotype remains controversial in humans. Through 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester labeling of human T(More)
The 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure (HF) Guidelines Update provides management recommendations for acute and chronic HF. In 2006, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society HF Guidelines committee first published an overview of HF management. Since then, significant additions to and changes in many of these recommendations have become apparent.(More)