Elizabeth R. Groff

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∗ The authors would like to thank Philadelphia Police Commissioner Charles Ramsey and the executive team at the Philadelphia Police Department for their collaborative approach to research and their support of this project, including Deputy Commissioner Richard Ross, Deputy Commissioner Tommy Wright, Deputy Commissioner Kevin Bethel, Chief Administrative(More)
Routine activity theory identifi es the routine activities of individuals as important to understanding the convergence of elements necessary for a crime to occur. Two recent studies have demonstrated how geographically aware agent-based models can be used to provide a virtual rather than empirical laboratory for testing theory. Those studies trace the(More)
While the use of mapping in criminal justice has increased over the last 30 years, most applications are retrospective that is, they examine criminal phenomena and related factors that have already occurred. While such retrospective mapping efforts are useful, the true promise of crime mapping lies in its ability to identify early warning signs across time(More)
Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs that address opportunity or structural factors related to crime are usually delivered to entire cities, sections of cities or to specific neighborhoods, but our results indicate geographically targeting these programs to specific street segments may increase their efficacy. We link crime incidents to over(More)
Objectives: Use crime pattern theory to investigate the proximity effects of public housing communities on robbery crime while taking into account the presence of nearby nonresidential facilities. Method: The study uses data describing 41 Philadelphia public housing communities and their surrounds. Surrounds are defined using two increments of street(More)
4825 Mark Center Drive Alexandria, VA 22311 703-824-2476 www.cna.org www.smartpolicinginitiative.com This project was supported by Grant No. 2009-DG-BX-K021 awarded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance. The Bureau of Justice Assistance is a component of the Office of Justice Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National(More)
Foot patrol work is rarely described in relation to public health, even though police routinely encounter health risk behaviors and environments. Through a qualitative study of foot patrol policing in violent 'hotspots' of Philadelphia, we explore some prospects and challenges associated with bridging security and public health considerations in law(More)
Until quite recently, the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for the purpose of mapping crimes in the United States was limited to a small group of geographers with an esoteric knowledge of the mechanics of map digitizing and mainframe computer technology. In recent years, however, the marked reduction in the price of personal computer hardware,(More)
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