Elizabeth R. Groff

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and Director of Strategic Communications Karima Zedan. We also would like to show our appreciation to the district commanders and patrol officers for their hospitality. The authors would like to thank Program. The points of view or opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Philadelphia(More)
While the use of mapping in criminal justice has increased over the last 30 years, most applications are retrospective-that is, they examine criminal phenomena and related factors that have already occurred. While such retrospective mapping efforts are useful, the true promise of crime mapping lies in its ability to identify early warning signs across time(More)
Routine activity theory identifi es the routine activities of individuals as important to understanding the convergence of elements necessary for a crime to occur. Two recent studies have demonstrated how geographically aware agent-based models can be used to provide a virtual rather than empirical laboratory for testing theory. Those studies trace the(More)
Acknowledgements This primer benefited from the input of a variety of individuals. George Rengert, a consultant on the project, provided valuable insights regarding initial patterns of triangles and suggestions regarding the analysis plan that produced them. Both Waldo Tobler and Ned Levine reviewed and offered feedback that enhanced the sections on their(More)
Foot patrol work is rarely described in relation to public health, even though police routinely encounter health risk behaviors and environments. Through a qualitative study of foot patrol policing in violent 'hotspots' of Philadelphia, we explore some prospects and challenges associated with bridging security and public health considerations in law(More)
Until quite recently, the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for the purpose of mapping crimes in the United States was limited to a small group of geographers with an esoteric knowledge of the mechanics of map digitizing and mainframe computer technology. In recent years, however, the marked reduction in the price of personal computer hardware,(More)
To provide better customer service, NCJRS has made this Federally-funded grant final report available electronically in addition to traditional paper copies. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S.
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