Elizabeth R. Gaillard

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PURPOSE Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in the regulation of cell function. The aging process may involve chemical modifications to ECM proteins, which may contribute to the aging of the Bruch membrane and pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of this study is to investigate nitrite modification of basement(More)
Fluorescent material generated in the human retina accumulates within lipofuscin granules of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) during aging. Its presence has been suggested to contributed to various diseases including age-related macular degeneration. Because this material absorbs light at wave lengths as long as 550 nm, photophysical studies were(More)
PURPOSE We have shown previously that aging of human Bruch's membrane affects the attachment, survival and gene expression profile of the overlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Herein we determine the effects of Bruch's membrane aging on RPE phagocytosis of rod outer segments. METHODS Explants of human Bruch's membrane were prepared from cadaver(More)
alpha-Crystallin, a major protein of the mammalian lens, plays a vital role in maintaining the structural stability and transparency of the lens. It performs this function through chaperone-like activity; it has recently been reported that heating alpha-crystallin enhances this ability. The present studies, using both time-resolved and steady-state(More)
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of highly pigmented cells lining the inner aspect of Bruch's membrane. This pigmentation is due to eumelanin and a possible antioxidant role of melanin is reported here. The photo-oxidation of A2E, a constituent of RPE lipofuscin, leads to the sequential addition of up to nine oxygen atoms and/or the(More)
The physical properties of membranes derived from the total lipid extract of porcine lenses before and after the addition of cholesterol were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods. Conventional EPR spectra and saturation-recovery curves indicate that the spin labels detect a single homogenous environment in membranes before the addition of(More)
Epidemiological studies have correlated cortical cataract with exposure to light and have suggested that this is due primarily to relatively short wavelengths of ultraviolet radiation (UV-B). In addition, some cellular and animal models also implicate UV-B. In order to evaluate the likely role of different wavelengths of light in the etiology of cortical(More)
It has been reported that the photo-oxidation of A2E, a component of human retinal lipofuscin, leads to products that are toxic to cells via dark reactions. Because these compounds have been implicated in the development of various maculopathies such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), it is important to determine the structures of those deleterious(More)
PURPOSE To quantitate aging of the primate lens by changes in the absorption characteristics that are related to the yellowing of lens protein. METHODS The lenses of lower primates and humans were sectioned anterior to posterior every 0.25 mm, and the UV-visible spectrum of each section was measured to determine the cumulative spectra along the visual(More)
The physical properties of a membrane derived from the total lipids of a calf lens were investigated using EPR spin labeling and were compared with the properties of membranes made of an equimolar 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (POPC/Chol) mixture and of pure POPC. Conventional EPR spectra and saturation-recovery curves show that spin(More)