Elizabeth R. Brown

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BACKGROUND Nevirapine given once-daily for the first 6, 14, or 28 weeks of life to infants exposed to HIV-1 via breastfeeding reduces transmission through this route compared with single-dose nevirapine at birth or neonatally. We aimed to assess incremental safety and efficacy of extension of such prophylaxis to 6 months. METHODS In our phase 3,(More)
Because lubricants may decrease trauma during coitus, it is hypothesized that they could aid in the prevention of HIV acquisition. Therefore, safety and anti-HIV-1 activity of over-the-counter (OTC) aqueous- (n = 10), lipid- (n = 2), and silicone-based (n = 2) products were tested. The rheological properties of the lipid-based lubricants precluded testing(More)
The R language, a freely available environment for statistical computing and graphics is widely used in many fields. This " expert-friendly " system has a powerful command language and programming environment, combined with an active user community. We discuss how R is ideal as a platform to support experimentation in mathematical statistics, both at the(More)
The goal of our Center is to improve health by investigating environmental exposures, addressing risks from these exposures, studying who might be most susceptible, and linking our research efforts with the communities we serve. Our Center has scientists from USC and UCLA who study cancer, respiratory disease and adverse reproductive outcomes. Some of our(More)
BACKGROUND Co-infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) has been associated with increased HIV-1 RNA levels and immune activation, two predictors of HIV-1 progression. The impact of HSV-2 on clinical outcomes among HIV-1 infected pregnant women is unclear. METHODS HIV-1 infected pregnant women in Nairobi were enrolled antenatally and HSV-2(More)
BACKGROUND Extent of atherosclerosis measured by amount of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in computed tomography (CT) has been traditionally assessed using thresholded scoring methods, such as the Agatston score (AS). These thresholded scores have value in clinical prediction, but important information might exist below the threshold, which would have(More)
BACKGROUND We determined the consistency of positive interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) to detect latent TB infection (LTBI) over one-year postpartum in HIV-1-infected women. METHODS Women with positive IGRAs during pregnancy had four 3-monthly postpartum IGRAs. Postpartum change in magnitude of IFN-γ response was determined using linear(More)
BACKGROUND HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Southern Africa is extremely high. Epidemiological studies suggest that pregnancy increases the risk of HIV sexual acquisition and that HIV infections acquired during pregnancy carry higher risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). We analyze the potential benefits from extending the availability of(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop and validate an HIV risk assessment tool to predict HIV acquisition among African women. DESIGN Data were analyzed from 3 randomized trials of biomedical HIV prevention interventions among African women (VOICE, HPTN 035, and FEM-PrEP). METHODS We implemented standard methods for the development of clinical prediction rules to(More)
Dapivirine (DPV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and maraviroc (MVC), a CCR5 antagonist, were formulated into aqueous gels designed to prevent mucosal HIV transmission. 0.05% DPV, 0.1% MVC, 0.05% DPV/0.1% MVC and placebo gels were evaluated for pH, viscosity, osmolality, and in vitro release. In vitro assays and mucosal tissues were used(More)