Elizabeth R. B. Smith

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We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m (0.09 ha pixel-') land-cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indexes measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes includ-forest is found in fragmented landscapes. With 65.61-ha(More)
Urbanization replaces the extant natural resource base (e.g., forests, wetlands) with an infrastructure that is capable of supporting humans. One ecological consequence of urbanization is higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) in streams, lakes, and estuaries. When received in excess, N and P are considered pollutants. Continuing(More)
/ A fuzzy decision analysis method for integrating ecological indicators was developed. This was a combination of a fuzzy ranking method and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The method was capable of ranking ecosystems in terms of environmental conditions and suggesting cumulative impacts across a large region. Using data on land cover, population,(More)
In response to retinoic acid, embryonic stem and carcinoma cells undergo differentiation to embryonic primitive endoderm cells, accompanied by a reduction in cell proliferation. Differentiation does not reduce the activation of cellular MAPK/Erk, but does uncouple mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation from phosphorylation/activation of Elk-1(More)
BACKGROUND The MAPK/ERK1/2 serine kinases are primary mediators of the Ras mitogenic signaling pathway. Phosphorylation by MEK activates MAPK/ERK in the cytoplasm, and phospho-ERK is thought to enter the nucleus readily to modulate transcription. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Here, however, we observe that in primary cultures of breast and ovarian epithelial cells,(More)
BACKGROUND The family of zinc finger-containing GATA transcription factors plays critical roles in cell lineage specification during early embryonic development and organ formation. GATA4 and GATA6 were found to be frequently lost in ovarian cancer, and the loss is proposed to account for dedifferentiation of the cancer cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
Disabled-2 (Dab2) is an endocytic adaptor protein involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and cargo trafficking. Since its expression is lost in several cancer types, Dab2 has been suggested to be a tumor suppressor. In vitro studies indicate that Dab2 establishes epithelial cell polarity and organization by directing endocytic trafficking of membrane(More)
A new method has been developed to perform environmental assessment at regional scale. This involves a combination of a self-organizing map (SOM) neural network and principal component analysis (PCA). The method is capable of clustering ecosystems in terms of environmental conditions and suggesting relative cumulative environmental impacts of multiple(More)
DESPITE SIGNIFICANT UNDERSTANDING OF THE GENETIC MUTATIONS INVOLVED IN OVARIAN EPITHELIAL CANCER AND ADVANCES IN GENOMIC APPROACHES FOR EXPRESSION AND MUTATION PROFILING OF TUMOR TISSUES, SEVERAL KEY QUESTIONS IN OVARIAN CANCER BIOLOGY REMAIN ENIGMATIC: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains(More)
Spatially explicit identification of changes in ecological conditions over large areas is key to targeting and prioritizing areas for environmental protection and restoration by managers at watershed, basin, and regional scales. A critical limitation to this point has been the development of methods to conduct such broad-scale assessments. Field-based(More)