Elizabeth P Murchison

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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved, 18- to 25-nucleotide, non-protein coding transcripts that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression during development. miRNAs also occur in postmitotic cells, such as neurons in the mammalian central nervous system, but their function is less well characterized. We investigated the role of miRNAs in(More)
To address the biological function of RNA interference (RNAi)-related pathways in mammals, we disrupted the gene Dicer1 in mice. Loss of Dicer1 lead to lethality early in development, with Dicer1-null embryos depleted of stem cells. Coupled with our inability to generate viable Dicer1-null embryonic stem (ES) cells, this suggests a role for Dicer, and, by(More)
Pseudogenes populate the mammalian genome as remnants of artefactual incorporation of coding messenger RNAs into transposon pathways. Here we show that a subset of pseudogenes generates endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) in mouse oocytes. These endo-siRNAs are often processed from double-stranded RNAs formed by hybridization of spliced(More)
Dicer is an RNase III-family nuclease that initiates RNA interference (RNAi) and related phenomena by generation of the small RNAs that determine the specificity of these gene silencing pathways. We have previously shown that Dicer is essential for mammalian development, with Dicer-deficient mice dying at embryonic day 7.5 with a lack of detectable(More)
Dicer is an essential component of RNA interference (RNAi) pathways, which have broad functions in gene regulation and genome organization. Probing the consequences of tissue-restricted Dicer loss in mice indicates a critical role for Dicer during meiosis in the female germline. Mouse oocytes lacking Dicer arrest in meiosis I with multiple disorganized(More)
Neurogenesis during the development of the mammalian cerebral cortex involves a switch of neural stem and progenitor cells from proliferation to differentiation. To explore the possible role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in this process, we conditionally ablated Dicer in the developing mouse neocortex using Emx1-Cre, which is specifically expressed in the dorsal(More)
The mammalian radiation has corresponded with rapid changes in noncoding regions of the genome, but we lack a comprehensive understanding of regulatory evolution in mammals. Here, we track the evolution of promoters and enhancers active in liver across 20 mammalian species from six diverse orders by profiling genomic enrichment of H3K27 acetylation and H3K4(More)
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), the largest marsupial carnivore, is endangered due to a transmissible facial cancer spread by direct transfer of living cancer cells through biting. Here we describe the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of the Tasmanian devil genome and whole-genome sequences for two geographically distant subclones of the(More)
The discovery that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating gene expression via posttranscriptional repression has revealed a previously unsuspected mechanism controlling development and progenitor-cell function (reviewed in ); however, little is known of miRNA functions in mammalian organogenesis. Processing of miRNAs and their assembly into(More)
Small RNA pathways play evolutionarily conserved roles in gene regulation and defense from parasitic nucleic acids. The character and expression patterns of small RNAs show conservation throughout animal lineages, but specific animal clades also show variations on these recurring themes, including species-specific small RNAs. The monotremes, with only(More)