Elizabeth N. Shapiro

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We investigate a Mexican federal program that compensates landowners for forest protection. We use matched controls from the program applicant pool to establish counterfactual deforestation rates. Deforestation was reduced by 50% in enrolled parcels, but expected average clearing rates without the program were low (0.8% per year), suggesting modest total(More)
We compared how management approaches affected shade tree diversity, soil properties, and provisioning and carbon sequestration ecosystem services in three shade coffee cooperatives. Collectively managed cooperatives utilized less diverse shade, and pruned coffee and shade trees more intensively, than individual farms. Soil properties showed significant(More)
The systolic contraction and fiber shortening in the left ventricle (LV) produces torsional moments in the myocardium, resulting in a gradient of angular displacements about the long axis. This is manifested as a counterclockwise rotation of the apex relative to the base, when viewed from the apex. Recent studies with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using(More)
Previous reports described the use of average tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurements to assess local tissue water and its change. Our goal was to determine if a single TDC measurement could be used in place of the average of multiple measurements. The comparison criteria used to test this was the extent to which single and averaged measurements(More)
Previous reports described the utility of assessing local tissue water via tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurements. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this method to evaluate lymphedema changes. For this purpose, we measured changes in TDC produced by one MLD treatment in 27 legs of 18 patients with lower extremity lymphedema. TDC values(More)
Previous reports describe the use of average tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurements to assess local tissue water and its change. Our goal was to determine if a single TDC measurement could be used in place of the average of multiple measurements. The comparison criteria used to test this was the extent to which single and averaged measurements(More)
Five cases of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease which occurred over a five-month period were retrospectively investigated. Chart review showed that during the two- to 10-day incubation period before the onset of illness, all of the patients inhaled aerosolized tap water from jet nebulizers (four patients) or from a portable room humidifier (one patient), and(More)
Geometric remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) following myocardial infarction and ischemic insult is associated with myocardial load redistribution. Regional curvatures based on 3-D reconstructions of the LV are used to calculate the regional loads. The technique uses surface normals to derive local circumferential and meridional curvatures. Following the(More)
Assessing local tissue water using tissue dielectric constant (TDC) values is useful to evaluate oedema/lymphoedema features and their change. Knowledge of anatomical site and tissue depth dependence of TDC values could extend this method's utility. Our goal was to compare TDC values obtained at anatomically paired sites and to investigate their depth(More)