Elizabeth N Pearce

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Pregnancy has a profound impact on the thyroid gland and thyroid function. The gland increases 10% in size during pregnancy in iodine-replete countries and by 20%– 40% in areas of iodine deficiency. Production of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) increases by 50%, along with a 50% increase in the daily iodine requirement. These physiological changes(More)
CONTEXT Breastfed infants rely on adequate maternal dietary iodine intake. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to measure breast milk iodine and perchlorate, an inhibitor of iodide transport into the thyroid and potentially into breast milk, in Boston-area women. PARTICIPANTS The study included 57 lactating healthy volunteers in the Boston area. MEASUREMENTS(More)
Dietary iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production. Although U.S. dietary iodine is generally adequate, some groups, especially women of childbearing age, are at risk for mild iodine deficiency. Children's average urinary iodine is higher than that of adults. U.S. dietary iodine sources have not been assessed recently. A survey of iodine content in(More)
BACKGROUND Goiter prevalence in school-age children is an indicator of the severity of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) in a population. In areas of mild-to-moderate IDDs, measurement of thyroid volume (Tvol) by ultrasound is preferable to palpation for grading goiter, but interpretation requires reference criteria from iodine-sufficient children. (More)
CONTEXT Relations between thyroid function and lipids remain incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to determine whether lipoprotein subparticle concentrations are associated with thyroid status. DESIGN AND SETTING We conducted a prospective clinical study and cross-sectional cohort analysis at a university endocrine clinic and the(More)
CONTEXT The recognition of thyroid microcarcinoma has increased due to the widespread use of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to describe histological and clinical characteristics of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) less than or equal to 1 cm. DESIGN This study was a retrospective(More)
BACKGROUND Overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism may be associated with weight gain and loss. We assessed whether variations in thyroid function within the reference (physiologic) range are associated with body weight. METHODS Framingham Offspring Study participants (n=2407) who attended 2 consecutive routine examinations, were not receiving thyroid(More)
CONTEXT Perchlorate has been detected in U.S. drinking water supplies at levels ranging from 4 to 200 microg/liter as well as in agricultural products. Perchlorate is known to be a competitive inhibitor of iodine uptake by the thyroid through the sodium-iodide symporter. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to determine whether prolonged exposure (6(More)
The fetus is totally dependent in early pregnancy on maternal thyroxine for normal brain development. Adequate maternal dietary intake of iodine during pregnancy is essential for maternal thyroxine production and later for thyroid function in the fetus. If iodine insufficiency leads to inadequate production of thyroid hormones and hypothyroidism during(More)