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BACKGROUND Mobile (cell) phone communication has been suggested as a method to improve delivery of health services. However, data on the effects of mobile health technology on patient outcomes in resource-limited settings are limited. We aimed to assess whether mobile phone communication between health-care workers and patients starting antiretroviral(More)
CONTEXT Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in female sex workers (FSWs) and may enhance susceptibility to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). OBJECTIVE To examine regular antibiotic prophylaxis in FSWs as a strategy for reducing the incidence of bacterial STIs and HIV-1. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS(More)
Many people who remain persistently seronegative despite frequent HIV exposure have HIV-specific immune responses. The study of these may provide information about mechanisms of natural protective immunity to HIV-1. We describe the specificity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to HIV in seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi who are apparently resistant to(More)
BACKGROUND There is indirect evidence that HIV-1 exposure does not inevitably lead to persistent infection. Heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection could be due to protective immunity. The objective of this study was to find out whether in highly HIV-1-exposed populations some individuals are resistant to infection. METHODS We did an observational(More)
From a cohort of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya, 163 women were observed to seroconvert to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and followed to study progression to HIV-1-related disease. The effect of several covariables on disease progression was studied using a Weibull proportional hazards model. The Weibull survival model was fitted to the(More)
Condom use was assessed after a programme of education about the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and a condom distribution programme in a well-characterised prostitute population in Nairobi. Women received their education at group meetings (barazas) and at individual counselling sessions during which they were given the results of serological tests for(More)
To evaluate the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), a study was conducted of 147 HIV-seropositive and 51 HIV-seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. Among the women infected with HIV, 10 (7%) had signs or symptoms of significant HIV-related disease, and the remaining(More)
OBJECTIVES Female sex workers (FSWs) form a core group at high risk of both sexual HIV acquisition and secondary transmission. The magnitude of these risks may vary by sexual risk taking, partner HIV prevalence, host immune factors and genital co-infections. We examined temporal trends in HIV prevalence and per-act incidence, adjusted for behavioral and(More)
In Kenya, the median incubation time to AIDS in seroconverting sex workers is 4 years; this incubation time is specific to female sex workers. We studied the influence of acute sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on several immunologic parameters in 32 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-positive and 10 HIV-1-negative women sex workers who were(More)