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BACKGROUND Mobile (cell) phone communication has been suggested as a method to improve delivery of health services. However, data on the effects of mobile health technology on patient outcomes in resource-limited settings are limited. We aimed to assess whether mobile phone communication between health-care workers and patients starting antiretroviral(More)
BACKGROUND Prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases human immunodeficiency virus acquisition. We hypothesized that HSV-2 infection might also predispose individuals to acquire other common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). METHODS We studied the association between prevalent HSV-2 infection and STI incidence in a(More)
BACKGROUND The objectives are to compare the effectiveness of cell phone-supported SMS messaging to standard care on adherence, quality of life, retention, and mortality in a population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS AND DESIGN A multi-site randomized controlled open-label trial. A central randomization centre provided(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify and describe populations at risk for HIV in 3 clinical research centers in Kenya and South Africa. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. METHODS Volunteers reporting recent sexual activity, multiple partners, transactional sex, sex with an HIV-positive partner, or, if male, sex with men (MSM; in Kenya only) were enrolled. Sexually(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic coinfection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been associated with an increased HIV viral load and more rapid disease progression, perhaps related to HSV-2-associated alterations in host immunity. METHODS Studies were nested within (1) a cross-sectional study of men coinfected with HIV(More)
INTRODUCTION Behavioral interventions in female sex workers (FSWs) are associated with changes in sexual behavior and reduced rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV We examined the sustainability of such interventions. METHODS HIV-uninfected Kenyan FSWs were enrolled in a clinical trial that provided free male condoms, community and(More)
INTRODUCTION Research on the intimate partnerships of female sex workers (FSWs) tends to focus on the risks associated with these relationships. This paper takes as its starting point that the situation of FSWs is better understood by including knowledge of the benefits of their intimate partnerships. Specifically, we employ the conceptual framework(More)
We examined the effect of HLA class I haplotypes on HIV-1 seroconversion and disease progression in the Pumwani sex worker cohort. This study included 595 HIV-1 positive patients and 176 HIV negative individuals. HLA-A, -B, and -C were typed to 4-digit resolution using sequence-based typing method. HLA class I haplotype frequencies were estimated using(More)
OBJECTIVES Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) prolongs life and reduces infectiousness, in some contexts, it has been associated with increased sexual risk taking. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. SETTING Nairobi-based dedicated female sex worker (FSW) clinic. PARTICIPANTS HIV-infected FSWs before and after ART initiation (n=62);(More)
Changes in the rates of condom use and number of sexual partners were evaluated among 140 female sex workers in Kibera, Kenya, participating in a 6-month study of diaphragm safety and acceptability for prevention of sexually transmitted infections conducted in 2004-2005. Analyses were stratified by partner type. Multivariable Tobit regression modeling was(More)