Elizabeth N. Johnson

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Perceptually, color is used to discriminate objects by hue and to identify color boundaries. The primate retina and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) have cell populations sensitive to color modulation, but the role of the primary visual cortex (V1) in color signal processing is uncertain. We re-evaluated color processing in V1 by studying single-neuron(More)
Cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) use their antennae to detect a wall and to maintain a constant distance from it as they walk or run along it. The faster they run, the closer they position themselves to the wall. They also use their antennae to detect and follow multiple accordion-like projections in the wall. They can make up to 25 body turns s-1 for(More)
Color has become a premier model system for understanding how information is processed by neural circuits, and for investigating the relationships among genes, neural circuits, and perception. Both the physical stimulus for color and the perceptual output experienced as color are quite well characterized, but the neural mechanisms that underlie the(More)
Form has a strong influence on color perception. We investigated the neural basis of the form-color link in macaque primary visual cortex (V1) by studying orientation selectivity of single V1 cells for pure color patterns. Neurons that responded to color were classified, based on cone inputs and spatial selectivity, into chromatically single-opponent and(More)
To understand the role of primary visual cortex (V1) in color vision, we measured directly the input from the 3 cone types in macaque V1 neurons. Cells were classified as luminance-preferring, color-luminance, or color-preferring from the ratio of the peak amplitudes of spatial frequency responses to red/green equiluminant and to black/white (luminance)(More)
Leukotrienes constitute a class of potent biological mediators of inflammation and anaphylaxis (for reviews see refs 1 and 2). Their biosynthesis derives from 5-lipoxygenase-catalysed oxygenation of arachidonic acid in granulocytes, macrophages and mast cells. To examine the physiological importance of leukotrienes, we have disrupted the 5-lipoxygenase gene(More)
Arachidonic acid metabolism is one of several mechanisms culminating in the production of an agonist for platelet activation and recruitment. Although the proaggregatory role of thromboxane A2, a product of the aspirin-inhibitable cyclooxygenase, is well established, relatively little is known regarding the biological importance of arachidonic acid(More)
Murine and human skin express an abundance of lipoxygenase isoforms whose functions are not understood. Substantial data have implicated a role for the 'platelet-type' 12-lipoxygenase (P-12LO) metabolite, 12(S)-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), in a variety of tumor functions. Using P-12LO deficient mice, we sought to examine the role of the P-12LO(More)
The roles of fatty acids in the skin have been under investigation since early reports of the phenotypic abnormalities of mice fed a diet deficient in essential fatty acids. Little is known about the functional significance of fatty acid metabolism by lipoxygenases in epidermis. Here, we have examined the role of platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase which converts(More)