Elizabeth Mumford

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Although the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus continues to cause infections in both avian and human populations, the specific zoonotic risk factors remain poorly understood. This review summarizes available evidence regarding types of contact associated with transmission of H5N1 virus at the human-animal interface. A systematic search of the(More)
BACKGROUND The threat posed by highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses to humans remains significant, given the continued occurrence of sporadic human cases (499 human cases in 15 countries) with a high case fatality rate (approximately 60%), the endemicity in poultry populations in several countries, and the potential for reassortment with the(More)
To identify environmental sites commonly contaminated by avian influenza virus A (H5N1) in live-bird markets in Indonesia, we investigated 83 markets in 3 provinces in Indonesia. At each market, samples were collected from up to 27 poultry-related sites to assess the extent of contamination. Samples were tested by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR(More)
For the past 10 years, animal health experts and human health experts have been gaining experience in the technical aspects of avian influenza in mostly separate fora. More recently, in 2006, in a meeting of the small WHO Working Group on Influenza Research at the Human Animal Interface (Meeting report available from:(More)
BACKGROUND Between September 2012 and 22 October 2013, 144 laboratory-confirmed and 17 probable MERS-CoV cases from nine countries were notified to WHO. METHODS We summarize what is known about the epidemiology, virology, phylogeny and emergence of MERS-CoV to inform public health policies. RESULTS The median age of patients (n=161) was 50 years (range(More)
BACKGROUND This study was conducted from 2006 to 2010 and investigated the seroprevalence of influenza A viruses in Cambodian pigs, including human H1N1, H3N2, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (A(H1N1)pdm09), and highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A viruses. METHODS A total of 1147 sera obtained from pigs in Cambodia were tested by haemagglutination inhibition (HI)(More)
The national risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has not been assessed by many countries, and many countries are conducting little or no BSE surveillance. National measures implemented, including import restrictions, surveillance systems, and sanitary controls, should be based on actual BSE risk. Thus, as a first step, the national BSE status(More)
Although, the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) risk of most countries in Europe has been assessed and they have implemented both measures to control BSE and extensive surveillance systems, complete and valid data is still not consistently available. Globally, data is largely unavailable. Assessments based on incomplete or invalid information could(More)