Elizabeth Marshall

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BACKGROUND Evidence links exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy, particularly gaseous pollutants and particulate matter, to an increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes though the results for birth defects have been inconsistent. METHODS We compared estimated exposure to ambient air pollutants during early pregnancy among mothers of(More)
The authors used a case-control design to evaluate the risk of central nervous system and musculoskeletal birth defects relative to exposure to solvents, metal, and pesticide contaminants from hazardous waste sites. Cases included 473 central-nervous-system-defect births and 3305 musculoskeletal-defect births to residents of 18 counties in New York State;(More)
The notions of resilience that have emerged in developmental psychology and psychiatry in recent years require systematic rethinking to address the distinctive cultures, geographic and social settings, and histories of adversity of indigenous peoples. In Canada, the overriding social realities of indigenous peoples include their historical rootedness to a(More)
Congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCM) cause substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Known risk factors for CCM explain only 10-20% of all cases. Few studies have examined mothers' physical exposures during pregnancy and the risk of CCM in their offspring. This study examined the association between exposures to extreme temperatures, prolonged(More)
Some evidence suggests that solvent exposures to rubber industry workers may be associated with excess cancer mortality, but most studies of rubber workers lack information about specific chemical exposures. In one large rubber and tire-manufacturing plant, however, historical documents allowed a classification of jobs based on potential exposures to all(More)
We examined the relationship between lead exposure and fertility among men in a retrospective cohort study. Fertility (1981-1992) of lead-exposed workers was determined from birth certificate information and was compared with that of nonexposed workers. The exposed group consisted of 4256 reproductive-age male workers reported to the New York State Heavy(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the airflow characteristics of respiratory isolation rooms (IRs) and to evaluate the use of visible smoke as a monitoring tool. METHODS Industrial hygienists from the New York State Department of Health evaluated 140 designated IRs in 38 facilities within New York State during 1992 to 1998. The rooms were located in the following(More)
This article examines the association between two birth defects, neural tube defects and oral cleft defects, and maternal physical work demands during the periconceptional period. A case-control study was conducted by comparing exposure characteristics of mothers of malformed infants, as ascertained from the New York State Congenital Malformations Registry(More)
The relation between paternal occupational lead exposure and low birth weight/prematurity was examined in a retrospective cohort study. Birth weight and gestational age (1981-1992), obtained from New York State birth certificates, were compared between lead-exposed and nonexposed workers. The exposed group (n = 4,256) consisted of births to male workers of(More)
Maternal occupations recorded on birth certificates are a potential data source for evaluation of reproductive hazards, but may not accurately identify jobs held during the sensitive first trimester. Mothers' occupation and industry during 1 month before and 3 months after conception were reported on 1,760 mailed questionnaires. These were compared to(More)