Elizabeth M. Waters

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Several of the best-studied sex differences in the mammalian brain are ascribed to the hormonal control of cell death. This conclusion is based primarily on correlations between pyknotic cell counts in development and counts of mature neurons in adulthood; the molecular mechanisms of hormone-regulated, sexually dimorphic cell death are unknown. We asked(More)
Estradiol modulates dendritic spine morphology and synaptic protein expression in the rodent hippocampus, as well as hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. In the rat, these effects may be mediated through nongenomic steroid signaling such as estradiol activation of the Akt and LIM kinase (LIMK) pathways, in addition to genomic signaling involving(More)
Estrogens have direct effects on the brain areas controlling cognition. One of the most studied of these regions is the dorsal hippocampal formation, which governs the formation of spatial and episodic memories. In laboratory animals, most investigators report that estrogen enhances synaptic plasticity and improves performance on hippocampal-dependent(More)
Estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta), and progestin receptor (PR) immunoreactivities are localized to extranuclear sites in the rat hippocampal formation. Because rats and mice respond differently to estradiol treatment at a cellular level, the present study examined the distribution of ovarian hormone receptors in the dorsal(More)
The application of electron microscopic immunolabeling techniques to the identification and analysis of degenerating processes in neural tissue has greatly enhanced the ability of researchers to examine apoptosis and other degenerative disease mechanisms. This is particularly true for the early stages of such mechanisms. Traditionally, degenerating(More)
From its origins in how the brain controls the endocrine system via the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, neuroendocrinology has evolved into a science that now includes hormone action on many aspects of brain function. These actions involve the whole central nervous system and not just the hypothalamus. Advances in our understanding of cellular and(More)
The CD11c enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) transgenic mouse was constructed to identify dendritic cells in the periphery (Lindquist et al. [2004] Nat. Immunol. 5:1243-1250). In this study, we used this mouse to characterize dendritic cells within the CNS. Our anatomic results showed discrete populations of EYFP(+) brain dendritic cells (EYFP(+)(More)
Changes in hippocampal CA1 dendritic spine density and synaptic number across the estrous cycle in female rats correlate with increased hippocampal-dependent cognitive performance in a manner that is dependent on estrogen receptors (ERs). Two isoforms of the estrogen receptor, alpha and beta are present in the rat hippocampus and distinct effects on(More)
Chronic stress significantly alters limbic neuroarchitecture and function, and potentiates emotionality in rats. Chronic restraint stress (CRS) increases aggression among familiar rats, potentiates anxiety, and enhances fear conditioning. Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) induces anxiety behavior and dendritic hypertrophy in the basolateral amygdala,(More)
Current rodent models of menopause fail to adequately recapitulate the menopause transition. The intact aging model fails to achieve very low estrogen levels, and the ovariectomy model lacks a perimenopause phase. A new rodent model of accelerated ovarian failure (AOF) successfully replicates human perimenopause and postmenopause, including estrous(More)