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The persistence and pathways of dissipation of 17beta-estradiol and estrone in soil were established in laboratory microcosm incubations. [4-14C]-17beta-Estradiol dissipation and mineralization rates were determined over a range of temperatures and moistures, and this compound was rapidly removed in soil conditions typical of a temperate growing season.(More)
The use of microdialysis sampling was examined in a well-characterized hydrodynamic system. A cross-flow microdialysis probe was designed in which the flow of both the dialysis perfusion solution and the sample solution could be carefully controlled. Dialysis membranes of cellulose (Cuprophan), cellulose acetate, and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were examined in(More)
Results from clinical studies suggest that more than half of the 166 million dental restorations that were placed in the United States in 2005 were replacements for failed restorations. This emphasis on replacement therapy is expected to grow as dentists use composite as opposed to dental amalgam to restore moderate to large posterior lesions. Composite(More)
The uptake of 14C from various 14C-labeled organic chemicals from different chemical classes by barley and cress seedlings from soil was studied for 7 days in a closed aerated laboratory apparatus. Uptake by roots and by leaves via the air was determined separately. Although comparative long-term outdoor studies showed that an equilibrium is not reached(More)
This paper examines the effect of water content, water activity, and glass transition temperature (T(g)) on the deamidation of an asparagine-containing hexapeptide (VYPNGA; Asn-hexapeptide) in lyophilized poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) at 50 degrees C. The rate of Asn-hexapeptide deamidation increases with increasing water(More)
Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymers have been studied extensively for the controlled release of peptide and protein drugs. In addition to polymer biodegradation, chemical degradation of the incorporated peptide/protein has also been reported in PLGA devices, and the role of the polymer in promoting these reactions has been debated. This(More)
Peptide and protein drugs are often formulated in the solid-state to provide stabilization during storage. However, reactions can occur in the solid-state, leading to degradation and inactivation of these agents. This review summarizes the major chemical reactions affecting proteins and peptides in the solid-state: deamidation, peptide bond cleavage,(More)
The deamidation kinetics of four model peptides (AcGQNGG, AcGQNDG, AcGQNEG, and AcGQNQG) were studied in solution (70 degrees C, pH 5-10) and in lyophilized solids [70 degrees C, 50% relative humidity, "effective pH" ('pH') 5-10] containing polyvinyl pyrrolidone. AcGQNGG, AcGQNEG, and AcGQNQG degraded exclusively through Asn deamidation, whereas AcGQNDG(More)
The effect of pH modifying excipients on the chemical stability of a model peptide (VYPNGA) and the degradation of poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide)(PLGA) was studied in PLGA films under accelerated storage conditions. pH modifiers included a basic amine (proton sponge), a basic salt (magnesium hydroxide) and two pH buffers (ammonium acetate and magnesium(More)
The Asn residue in the pentapeptide Asn-Gln-Asn-Glu-Gly undergoes racemization at the Calpha center in the course of deamidation of this residue through a succinimide intermediate. The succinimide intermediate is known to racemize at the corresponding center, leading to racemized products of deamidation. Return of this intermediate to reactant Asn is very(More)