Learn More
The use of microdialysis sampling was examined in a well-characterized hydrodynamic system. A cross-flow microdialysis probe was designed in which the flow of both the dialysis perfusion solution and the sample solution could be carefully controlled. Dialysis membranes of cellulose (Cuprophan), cellulose acetate, and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were examined in(More)
Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymers have been studied extensively for the controlled release of peptide and protein drugs. In addition to polymer biodegradation, chemical degradation of the incorporated peptide/protein has also been reported in PLGA devices, and the role of the polymer in promoting these reactions has been debated. This(More)
Peptide and protein drugs are often formulated in the solid-state to provide stabilization during storage. However, reactions can occur in the solid-state, leading to degradation and inactivation of these agents. This review summarizes the major chemical reactions affecting proteins and peptides in the solid-state: deamidation, peptide bond cleavage,(More)
The effect of pH modifying excipients on the chemical stability of a model peptide (VYPNGA) and the degradation of poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide)(PLGA) was studied in PLGA films under accelerated storage conditions. pH modifiers included a basic amine (proton sponge), a basic salt (magnesium hydroxide) and two pH buffers (ammonium acetate and magnesium(More)
Covalent conjugates of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with para-nitroaniline (PNA) were synthesized as a model PVP-drug conjugate, and PNA release was evaluated in vitro. Pyrrolidone ring opening with subsequent t-BOC protection of the pyrrolidone nitrogen and reaction with PNA in methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) produced a PVP-PNA conjugate with 3% of the(More)
This technical note provides evidence for the degradation of Tris buffer in a peptide formulation stored at elevated temperature (70 degrees C). The buffer degrades to liberate formaldehyde, which is shown to react with the peptide tyrosine residue. Those involved in peptide/protein formulation should be aware of the possible instability in this common(More)
The deamidation kinetics of four model peptides (AcGQNGG, AcGQNDG, AcGQNEG, and AcGQNQG) were studied in solution (70 degrees C, pH 5-10) and in lyophilized solids [70 degrees C, 50% relative humidity, "effective pH" ('pH') 5-10] containing polyvinyl pyrrolidone. AcGQNGG, AcGQNEG, and AcGQNQG degraded exclusively through Asn deamidation, whereas AcGQNDG(More)
The rate of Asn deamidation of a model hexapeptide (L-Val-L-Tyr-L-Pro-L-Asn-Gly-L-Ala) was measured as a function of effective pH ('pH') in glassy and rubbery polymeric solids containing poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and in solution controls at 70 degrees C. The reaction exhibited pseudo-first-order kinetics in all samples over a wide 'pH' range (0.5 < 'pH'(More)
This paper examines the effect of water content, water activity, and glass transition temperature (T(g)) on the deamidation of an asparagine-containing hexapeptide (VYPNGA; Asn-hexapeptide) in lyophilized poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) at 50 degrees C. The rate of Asn-hexapeptide deamidation increases with increasing water(More)
Polymeric prodrugs have evolved into a very useful class of drug delivery agents. Numerous polymeric prodrugs have been prepared for applications ranging from passive drug targeting to controlled release. The mechanistic aspects of the release processes, however, have not been clearly delineated. This review highlights the salient features of the chemical(More)