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The relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences to the US black-white disparity in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is hotly debated within the public health, anthropology, and medical communities. In this article, we review evidence for developmental and epigenetic pathways linking early life environments with CVD, and critically evaluate(More)
Household financial debt in America has risen dramatically in recent years. While there is evidence that debt is associated with adverse psychological health, its relationship with other health outcomes is relatively unknown. We investigate the associations of multiple indices of financial debt with psychological and general health outcomes among 8400 young(More)
UNLABELLED The functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children who survive liver transplantation (LT) have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to determine the functional status and HRQOL in this population using a validated measure for children, the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50). METHODS(More)
200 Asian 300 African, Chinese, or Scottish children were examined for clinical, biochemical, and radiological evidence of vitamin-D deficiency. Among the Asians there were 10 with florid rickets and 15 with subclinical rickets. Among the African, Chinese, and Scottish children there were no cases of florid rickets and only 7 cases of subclinical rickets (3(More)
Despite the fact that ocean acidification is considered to be especially pronounced in the Southern Ocean, little is known about CO 2-dependent physiological processes and the interactions of Antarctic phytoplankton key species. We therefore studied the effects of CO 2 partial pressure (P CO 2) (16.2, 39.5, and 101.3 Pa) on growth and photosynthetic carbon(More)
Complete ascertainment of lethal neonatal short-limb chondrodysplasias was attempted in the West of Scotland for the period 1970-1983. Forty-three cases were identified, representing a minimum incidence of 1 in 8,900. The differential diagnosis included 11 well-delineated skeletal dysplasias, one case of warfarin embryopathy, and one apparently new(More)
Fifteen children with cholelithiasis who were treated at the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow between 1973 and 1985 are reviewed. Ten patients had idiopathic gallstones and five had gallstones in association with hereditary spherocytosis. All patients have been followed up for between 4 months and 12 years (mean 4.1 years): ultrasonography has been(More)
OBJECTIVES We explored how income and skin color interact to influence the blood pressure of African American adults enrolled in the longitudinal Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. METHODS Data were derived from 1893 African American CARDIA year-15 participants who had undergone skin reflectance assessments at year 7. We(More)
Radiological estimates of gestational age in late pregnancy were compared with the gestational ages based on first trimester ultrasound crown-rump length measurements in a series of 125 patients. It was found that the 95 per cent confidence limits of a radiological estimate were +/- 3 1/2 weeks, that both distal femoral and upper tibial epiphyses were(More)