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In humans, the elderly and immunocompromised are at greatest risk for disseminated West Nile virus (WNV) infection, yet the immunologic basis for this remains unclear. We demonstrated previously that B cells and IgG contributed to the defense against disseminated WNV infection (Diamond, M.S., B. Shrestha, A. Marri, D. Mahan, and M. Engle. 2003. J. Virol.(More)
Recent studies have established a protective role for T cells during primary West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Binding of CD40 by CD40 ligand (CD40L) on activated CD4+ T cells provides an important costimulatory signal for immunoglobulin class switching, antibody affinity maturation, and priming of CD8+ T-cell responses. We examined here the function of(More)
Although studies have established that innate and adaptive immune responses are important in controlling West Nile virus (WNV) infection, the function of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in modulating viral pathogenesis is less well characterized. Using a mouse model, we examined the role of CD4(+) T cells in coordinating protection against WNV infection. A genetic or(More)
WNV continues to spread throughout the Western Hemisphere as virus activity in insects and animals has been reported in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the Caribbean islands. West Nile virus (WNV) infects the central nervous system and causes severe disease primarily in humans who are immunocompromised or elderly. In this review, we discuss the(More)
Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) causes fatal encephalitis in immunocompromised animals. Previous studies in mice have established that T cell protection is required for clearance of WNV infection from tissues and preventing viral persistence. The current study assessed whether specific WNV peptide epitopes could elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)(More)
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