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Small, hydrophobic proteins whose synthesis is repressed by small RNAs (sRNAs), denoted type I toxin-antitoxin modules, were first discovered on plasmids where they regulate plasmid stability, but were subsequently found on a few bacterial chromosomes. We used exhaustive PSI-BLAST and TBLASTN searches across 774 bacterial genomes to identify homologs of(More)
The sequences encoding the QUAD1 RNAs were initially identified as four repeats in Escherichia coli. These repeats, herein renamed SIB, are conserved in closely related bacteria, although the number of repeats varies. All five Sib RNAs in E. coli MG1655 are expressed, and no phenotype was observed for a five-sib deletion strain. However, a phenotype(More)
There has been a great expansion in the number of small regulatory RNAs identified in bacteria. Some of these small RNAs repress the synthesis of potentially toxic proteins. Generally the toxin proteins are hydrophobic and less than 60 amino acids in length, and the corresponding antitoxin small RNA genes are antisense to the toxin genes or share long(More)
Previously, it has been demonstrated that the membrane fatty acid composition of Streptococcus mutans is affected by growth pH (E. M. Fozo and R. G. Quivey, Jr., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:929-936, 2004; R. G. Quivey, Jr., R. Faustoferri, K. Monahan, and R. Marquis, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 189:89-92, 2000). Specifically, the proportion of monounsaturated(More)
The gene encoding a nitric oxide reductase has been identified in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The norB gene product shares significant identity with the nitric oxide reductases in Ralstonia eutropha and Synechocystis sp. and, like those organisms, the gonococcus lacks a norC homolog. The gonococcal norB gene was found to be required for anaerobic growth, but the(More)
Acid adaptation of Streptococcus mutans UA159 involves several different mechanisms, including the ability to alter its proportion of long-chain, monounsaturated membrane fatty acids (R. G. Quivey, Jr., R. Faustoferri, K. Monahan, and R. Marquis, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 189:89-92, 2000). In the present study, we examined the mechanism and timing of changes in(More)
Four oral bacterial strains, of which two are considered aciduric and two are considered acid-sensitive, were grown under glucose-limiting conditions in chemostats to determine whether their membrane fatty acid profiles were altered in response to environmental acidification. Streptococcus gordonii DL1, as well as the aciduric strains S. salivarius 57.I,(More)
An insertionally inactivated fabM strain of Streptococcus mutans does not produce unsaturated membrane fatty acids and is acid sensitive (E. M. Fozo and R. G. Quivey, Jr., J. Bacteriol. 186:4152-4158, 2004). In this study, the strain was shown to be poorly transmissible from host to host. Animals directly infected with the fabM strain exhibited fewer and(More)
Type I toxin-antitoxin loci consist of two genes: a small, hydrophobic, potentially toxic protein, and a small RNA (sRNA) antitoxin. The sRNA represses toxin gene expression by base pairing to the toxin mRNA. A previous bioinformatics search predicted a duplicated type I locus within Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), which we have named the gene pairs(More)
The adjacent gadX and gadW genes encode transcription regulators that are part of a complex regulatory circuit controlling the Escherichia coli response to acid stress. We previously showed that the small RNA GadY positively regulates gadX mRNA levels. The gadY gene is located directly downstream of the gadX coding sequence on the opposite strand of the(More)