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The large diversity of cells that comprise the human immune system requires methods that can resolve the individual contributions of specific subsets to an immunological response. Microengraving is process that uses a dense, elastomeric array of microwells to generate microarrays of proteins secreted from large numbers of individual live cells(More)
Notch signaling plays an important role during T cell development in the thymus and in T cell activation but the role of Notch in autoimmunity is not clear. We investigated the role of Jagged1 and Delta1 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. During experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Delta1 expression is up-regulated on dendritic cells and B(More)
In our functional dissection of the CD33 Alzheimer's disease susceptibility locus, we found that the rs3865444(C) risk allele was associated with greater cell surface expression of CD33 in the monocytes (t50 = 10.06, P(joint) = 1.3 × 10(-13)) of young and older individuals. It was also associated with diminished internalization of amyloid-β 42 peptide,(More)
The release of cytokines by T cells defines a significant part of their functional activity in vivo, and their ability to produce multiple cytokines has been associated with beneficial immune responses. To date, time-integrated end-point measurements have obscured whether these polyfunctional states arise from the simultaneous or successive release of(More)
BACKGROUND Previous immunohistochemical studies of muscle from patients with inclusion body myositis and polymyositis found many more T cells than B cells, suggesting a role for intramuscular cell-mediated immune mechanisms rather than humoral mechanisms. METHODS Microarray studies were performed on muscle biopsy specimens from 40 patients with inclusion(More)
Past research regarding singing ability has provided evidence that both supports and refutes a relationship between pitch discrimination ability and pitch production ability. Researchers have suggested that these skills improve with age. Despite this suggestion, most investigators studying singing ability have included only children as participants.(More)
Autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D) are thought to have a Th1/Th17 bias. The underlying mechanisms driving the activation and differentiation of these proinflammatory T cells are unknown. We examined the monocytes isolated directly from the blood of T1D patients and found they spontaneously secreted the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and(More)
We used a protein quantitative trait analysis in monocytes from 226 individuals to evaluate cross-talk between Alzheimer loci. The NME8 locus influenced PTK2B and the CD33 risk allele led to greater TREM2 expression. There was also a decreased TREM1/TREM2 ratio with a TREM1 risk allele, decreased TREM2 expression with CD33 suppression and elevated cortical(More)
OBJECTIVE Genome-wide association studies have linked variants in TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2) and TREML2 with Alzheimer disease (AD) and AD endophenotypes. Here, we pursue a targeted analysis of the TREM locus in relation to cognitive decline and pathological features of AD. METHODS Clinical, cognitive, and neuropathological(More)
The secretion of IL-9, initially recognized as a Th2 cytokine, was recently attributed to a novel CD4 T cell subset termed Th9 in the murine system. However, IL-9 can also be secreted by mouse Th17 cells and may mediate aspects of the proinflammatory activities of Th17 cells. Here we report that IL-9 is secreted by human naive CD4 T cells in response to(More)