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The development of T helper (T(H))17 and regulatory T (T(reg)) cells is reciprocally regulated by cytokines. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta alone induces FoxP3(+) T(reg) cells, but together with IL-6 or IL-21 induces T(H)17 cells. Here we demonstrate that IL-9 is a key molecule that affects differentiation of T(H)17 cells and T(reg) function. IL-9(More)
Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is a pleiotropic cytokine that can regulate autoimmune responses by enhancing regulatory CD4(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cell survival and T helper 17 (Th17) cell proliferation. Here, we analyzed the costimulatory requirements for the induction of Th9 cells, and demonstrated that Notch pathway cooperated with TGF-β signaling to(More)
  • Gail Chan, Charles C White, +12 authors Philip L De Jager
  • 2015
We used a protein quantitative trait analysis in monocytes from 226 individuals to evaluate cross-talk between Alzheimer loci. The NME8 locus influenced PTK2B and the CD33 risk allele led to greater TREM2 expression. There was also a decreased TREM1/TREM2 ratio with a TREM1 risk allele, decreased TREM2 expression with CD33 suppression and elevated cortical(More)
The release of cytokines by T cells defines a significant part of their functional activity in vivo, and their ability to produce multiple cytokines has been associated with beneficial immune responses. To date, time-integrated end-point measurements have obscured whether these polyfunctional states arise from the simultaneous or successive release of(More)
The large diversity of cells that comprise the human immune system requires methods that can resolve the individual contributions of specific subsets to an immunological response. Microengraving is process that uses a dense, elastomeric array of microwells to generate microarrays of proteins secreted from large numbers of individual live cells(More)
Notch signaling plays an important role during T cell development in the thymus and in T cell activation but the role of Notch in autoimmunity is not clear. We investigated the role of Jagged1 and Delta1 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. During experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Delta1 expression is up-regulated on dendritic cells and B(More)
OBJECTIVE Genome-wide association studies have linked variants in TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2) and TREML2 with Alzheimer disease (AD) and AD endophenotypes. Here, we pursue a targeted analysis of the TREM locus in relation to cognitive decline and pathological features of AD. METHODS Clinical, cognitive, and neuropathological(More)
Recent evidence suggests that the P2X(7) receptor may play a role in the pathophysiology of preclinical models of pain and inflammation. Therefore, pharmacological agents that target this receptor may potentially have clinical utility as anti-inflammatory and analgesic therapy. We investigated and characterized the previously reported P2X(7) antagonist(More)
BACKGROUND Upper limb orthoses are frequently prescribed for children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have muscle overactivity predominantly due to spasticity, with little evidence of long-term effectiveness. Clinical consensus is that orthoses help to preserve range of movement: nevertheless, they can be complex to construct, expensive, uncomfortable and(More)
In our functional dissection of the CD33 Alzheimer's disease susceptibility locus, we found that the rs3865444(C) risk allele was associated with greater cell surface expression of CD33 in the monocytes (t50 = 10.06, P(joint) = 1.3 × 10(-13)) of young and older individuals. It was also associated with diminished internalization of amyloid-β 42 peptide,(More)