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The specification and maintenance of growth sites are tightly regulated during cell morphogenesis in all organisms. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE 2 reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (RHD2 NADPH) oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate a Ca2+ influx into the cytoplasm that is required for root hair growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. We(More)
The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In this report, the LBD gene DOWN IN DARK AND AUXIN1 (DDA1), which is closely related to LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2), was characterized. DDA1 is expressed primarily in vascular tissues and its transcript levels were reduced by(More)
A model of a blood vessel was constructed in vitro. Its multilayered structure resembled that of an artery and it withstood physiological pressures. Electron microscopy showed that the endothelial cells lining the lumen and the smooth muscle cells in the wall were healthy and well differentiated. The lining of endothelial cells functioned physically, as a(More)
A skin equivalent model has been used to fabricate tissues with psoriatic and normal cells. Psoriatic fibroblasts can induce hyperproliferative activity in normal keratinocytes. The psoriatic epidermis from lesions continues to proliferate at high rates for at least 15 days in this model, and normal fibroblasts are unable to suppress this(More)
Conserved in a variety of evolutionarily divergent plant species, LOB DOMAIN (LBD) genes define a large, plant-specific family of largely unknown function. LBD genes have been implicated in a variety of developmental processes in plants, although to date, relatively few members have been assigned functions. LBD proteins have previously been predicted to be(More)
Cytostructural changes during fibroblast spreading and translocation and during the transition between the two states have been studied in living cells and in the same cells after fixation and immunofluorescent staining. In time-lapse sequences we observe that birefringent arcs, sometimes circles, concentric with the cell perimeter, form near the periphery(More)
In higher plants, sexual reproduction involves interactions between pollen and pistil. A key mechanism to prevent inbreeding is self-incompatibility through rejection of incompatible ('self') pollen. In Papaver rhoeas, S proteins encoded by the stigma interact with incompatible pollen, triggering a Ca2+-dependent signalling network resulting in pollen tube(More)
We have examined the hypothesis that diploid cells grown in vitro age, and propose that only proliferative potential and not life-span is telescoped. We suggest that explanted or transplanted diploid cells are driven to divide by the process of subculturing in vitro or in vivo and, in response to this pressure, also complete their differentiation and become(More)
While IMR 90 and AG 1519 fibroblasts of low and high population doubling levels grow to confluency when plated on plastic surfaces, they cease to divide within four days when incorporated into collagen lattices. Growth inhibition in the lattices is not due to exhaustion of the medium or isotope, or to contact inhibition; nor is it due to impermeability of(More)