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We have assessed the pharmacokinetics, pharmacological and anti-tumour effects of the specific steroidal anti-oestrogen ICI 182780 in 19 patients with advanced breast cancer resistant to tamoxifen. The agent was administered as a monthly depot intramuscular injection. Peak levels of ICI 182780 occurred a median of 8-9 days after dosing and then declined but(More)
Ovarian steroids, acting through nuclear receptors, are crucial players in normal breast development and cancer. Estrogen, in particular, is the focus of breast cancer therapies because tumours are often dependent on this steroid for growth. Recently, novel genes and/or protein isoforms of receptors for both estrogen and progesterone have been discovered,(More)
Recent sequencing studies have extensively explored the somatic alterations present in the nuclear genomes of cancers. Although mitochondria control energy metabolism and apoptosis, the origins and impact of cancer-associated mutations in mtDNA are unclear. In this study, we analyzed somatic alterations in mtDNA from 1675 tumors. We identified 1907 somatic(More)
Multiple myeloma is an incurable plasma cell malignancy with a complex and incompletely understood molecular pathogenesis. Here we use whole-exome sequencing, copy-number profiling and cytogenetics to analyse 84 myeloma samples. Most cases have a complex subclonal structure and show clusters of subclonal variants, including subclonal driver mutations.(More)
We have investigated the effects on breast cancer cell growth of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT), a conventional antioestrogen with agonist activity, and 7 alpha-[9-(4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoropentylsulphinyl)nonyl]oestra- 1,3,5,(10)- triene-3,17 beta-diol (ICI 182780), a novel, pure antioestrogen, using established human breast cancer cell lines and cancer cells(More)
The epithelial proliferation of normal human breast tissue xenografts implanted into athymic nude mice is significantly increased from basal levels by oestradiol (E2), but not progesterone (Pg) treatment at serum concentrations similar to those observed in the luteal phase of the human menstrual cycle. Type I IGF receptor (IGFR-I) mRNA and protein have been(More)
Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta family, in particular TGF-beta 1, are some of the most potent inhibitory growth factors in a variety of cell types. Resistance to TGF-beta 1-induced growth inhibition is frequently observed in colorectal carcinomas and is associated with tumour progression. Perturbations of TGF-beta 1 expression and(More)
The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a sensitive technique that can detect prostate-specific messenger RNA in circulating blood. Many authors have studied the potential of RT-PCR as a staging technique in prostate cancer (PC). Clinical sensitivity and in some cases specificity has been disappointing. Few authors have been able to(More)
A relatively small number of cells in the normal human mammary gland express receptors for oestrogen and progesterone (ER and PR), and there is almost complete dissociation between steroid receptor expression and proliferation. Increased expression of the ER alpha (ERalpha) and loss of the inverse relationship between receptor expression and proliferation(More)
Genome-wide DNA sequencing was used to decrypt the phylogeny of multiple samples from distinct areas of cancer and morphologically normal tissue taken from the prostates of three men. Mutations were present at high levels in morphologically normal tissue distant from the cancer, reflecting clonal expansions, and the underlying mutational processes at work(More)