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Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a promising agent for neuroprotection in neurodegenerative diseases. We tested the effects of various doses of two formulations of CoQ10 in food and found that administration in the diet resulted in significant protection against loss of dopamine (DA), which was accompanied by a marked increase in plasma concentrations of CoQ10. We(More)
One of the hypotheses for the development of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is that mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 enzyme lead to aberrant properties of the copper within the active site of the enzyme which then causes increased oxidative damage. The lipophilic metal chelators DP-109 and DP-460 which chelate calcium, copper, and zinc(More)
Whether increased levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) correspond to a role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) needs to be determined and it is actively being pursued. Here we present evidence suggesting that MMP-9 contributes to the motor neuron cell death in ALS. We examined the role of MMP-9 in a mouse model of familial ALS(More)
Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) and creatine are promising agents for neuroprotection in neurodegenerative diseases via their effects on improving mitochondrial function and cellular bioenergetics and their properties as antioxidants. We examined whether a combination of CoQ(10) with creatine can exert additive neuroprotective effects in a MPTP mouse model of(More)
Sirtuins are NAD-dependent deacetylases that regulate important biologic processes including transcription, cell survival and metabolism. Activation of SIRT1, a mammalian sirtuin, extends longevity and increases neuronal survival. An important substrate of SIRT1 is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), a(More)
The NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway regulates phase 2 detoxification genes, including a variety of antioxidative enzymes. We tested neuroprotective effects of the synthetic triterpenoid CDDO-MA, a potent activator of the Nrf2/ARE signaling. CDDO-MA treatment of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells resulted in Nrf2(More)
Oxidative stress is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can markedly exacerbate amyloid pathology. Modulation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways represents an important approach for AD therapy. Synthetic triterpenoids have been found to facilitate antioxidant response and reduce inflammation in several(More)
Mitochondrial defects including reduction of a key mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme alpha-ketoglutarate-dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) are characteristic of many neurodegenerative diseases. KGDHC consists of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (E2k), and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (Dld) subunits. We(More)
ALS is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder for which no effective treatment exists. The precise molecular mechanisms underlying the selective degeneration of motor neurons are still unknown. A motor neuron specific apoptotic pathway involving Fas and NO has been discovered. Motor neurons from ALS-mice have an increased sensitivity to Fas-induced cell(More)
In addition to mitochondria, NADPH oxidase (NOX) is a source of oxidative stress, which can induce oxidative damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD). For this reason, several groups have investigated the effect of its inhibition. In AD mice, NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) deficiency improved behavior and cerebrovascular function, and reduced oxidative stress. In our(More)