Elizabeth J. Hughes

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BACKGROUND Problems associated with the hepatic transplantation of islets may preclude the broad application of islet transplantation. Thus, we sought to develop an approach to the extrahepatic transplantation of islets using a synthetic biodegradable polymer scaffold. METHODS Microporous polymer scaffolds that allow vascular ingrowth and nutrient(More)
RATIONALE Immunogenicity of new tuberculosis (TB) vaccines is commonly assessed by measuring the frequency and cytokine expression profile of T cells. OBJECTIVES We tested whether this outcome correlates with protection against childhood TB disease after newborn vaccination with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). METHODS Whole blood from 10-week-old(More)
SETTING A rural town in South Africa. OBJECTIVE To compare the performance of Quanti-FERON assays with the tuberculin skin test (TST) for identifying latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in a high TB burden community. DESIGN In a cross-sectional study in healthy adults, we applied the TST and took blood for the three generations of QuantiFERON assays.(More)
RATIONALE Novel tuberculosis (TB) vaccines should be safe and effective in populations infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and/or HIV for effective TB control. OBJECTIVE To determine the safety and immunogenicity of MVA85A, a novel TB vaccine, among M.tb- and/or HIV-infected persons in a setting where TB and HIV are endemic. METHODS An(More)
BACKGROUND The medical treatment of childhood epilepsy is largely influenced by clinical trials in adult patients. We know of only one randomised comparative trial (of two drugs) in newly diagnosed childhood epilepsy. We have undertaken a long-term, prospective, randomised, unmasked, pragmatic trial of the comparative efficacy and toxicity of four standard(More)
Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has variable efficacy in preventing tuberculosis. Both BCG strain and route of administration have been implicated in determining efficacy; however, these variables are not considered in current clinical recommendations for vaccine choice. We evaluated antigen-specific immunity after(More)
BACKGROUND BCG, the only licensed tuberculosis vaccine, affords poor protection against lung tuberculosis in infants and children. A new tuberculosis vaccine, which may enhance the BCG-induced immune response, is urgently needed. We assessed the safety of and characterized the T cell response induced by 3 doses of the candidate vaccine, MVA85A, in(More)
RATIONALE Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, thus there is an urgent need for novel TB vaccines. OBJECTIVES We investigated a novel TB vaccine candidate, M72/AS01, in a phase IIa trial of bacille Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated, HIV-uninfected, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected and -uninfected adults in South(More)
The regulation of the thyroid gland by TSH is mediated by a heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptor. Nonthyroid effects of TSH have been reported, and expression of its receptor has been described in adipocytes and lymphocytes. We have previously reported the existence of specific and saturable binding sites of TSH and specific TSH effects in primary(More)
The exocytosis of insulin-containing granules from pancreatic beta-cells is tightly regulated by changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). We investigated the role of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pump, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, and plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase pump in the Ca2+ dynamics of single rat pancreatic beta-cells. When the(More)