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BACKGROUND H56:IC31 is a candidate tuberculosis vaccine comprising a fusion protein of Ag85B, ESAT-6 and Rv2660c, formulated in IC31 adjuvant. This first-in-human, open label phase I trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of H56:IC31 in healthy adults without or with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection. METHODS Low dose (15 μg H56 protein in(More)
This study evaluated whether different bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strains, routes of administration, vaccination age and percutaneous tools influenced immune responses to BCG vaccination in infants. Proliferative responses, cytokine production and cell-mediated cytotoxicity obtained in post-vaccinated children were compared to baseline cord bloods and(More)
RATIONALE Novel tuberculosis (TB) vaccines should be safe and effective in populations infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and/or HIV for effective TB control. OBJECTIVE To determine the safety and immunogenicity of MVA85A, a novel TB vaccine, among M.tb- and/or HIV-infected persons in a setting where TB and HIV are endemic. METHODS An(More)
The exocytosis of insulin-containing granules from pancreatic beta-cells is tightly regulated by changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). We investigated the role of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pump, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, and plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase pump in the Ca2+ dynamics of single rat pancreatic beta-cells. When the(More)
One third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). A vaccine that would prevent progression to TB disease will have a dramatic impact on the global TB burden. We propose that antigens of M.tb that are preferentially expressed during latent infection will be excellent candidates for post-exposure vaccination. We therefore(More)
BACKGROUND The medical treatment of childhood epilepsy is largely influenced by clinical trials in adult patients. We know of only one randomised comparative trial (of two drugs) in newly diagnosed childhood epilepsy. We have undertaken a long-term, prospective, randomised, unmasked, pragmatic trial of the comparative efficacy and toxicity of four standard(More)
RATIONALE Immunogenicity of new tuberculosis (TB) vaccines is commonly assessed by measuring the frequency and cytokine expression profile of T cells. OBJECTIVES We tested whether this outcome correlates with protection against childhood TB disease after newborn vaccination with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). METHODS Whole blood from 10-week-old(More)
BACKGROUND BCG, the only licensed tuberculosis vaccine, affords poor protection against lung tuberculosis in infants and children. A new tuberculosis vaccine, which may enhance the BCG-induced immune response, is urgently needed. We assessed the safety of and characterized the T cell response induced by 3 doses of the candidate vaccine, MVA85A, in(More)
BACKGROUND Reactivation of polyomavirus BK (BKV) after renal transplantation can lead to allograft dysfunction or loss with early detection improving outcomes. Current guidelines recommend quantitative polymerase chain reaction for surveillance; however, urinary decoy cell detection is a potentially cost-effective alternative. We present the outcomes from(More)
RATIONALE Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, thus there is an urgent need for novel TB vaccines. OBJECTIVES We investigated a novel TB vaccine candidate, M72/AS01, in a phase IIa trial of bacille Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated, HIV-uninfected, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected and -uninfected adults in South(More)