Elizabeth I. Sypek

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Exposure to inescapable stressors increases both the rewarding properties and self-administration of cocaine through the signaling of the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR), but the effect of this signaling on other reinforcing agents remains unclear. The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that signaling of the KOR mediates the forced swim stress(More)
HIV-Tat protein has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 neurological complications (i.e., neuroAIDS), but direct demonstrations of the effects of Tat on behavior are limited. GT-tg mice with a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible and brain-selective tat gene coding for Tat protein were used to test the hypothesis that the activity of Tat in brain is(More)
Pain thresholds are, in part, set as a function of emotional and internal states by descending modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. Neurons of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are thought to critically contribute to this process; however, the neural circuits and synaptic mechanisms by which distinct populations of RVM neurons(More)
Depression has been associated with abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission and decreased astrocyte number in limbic areas. We previously demonstrated that global and prefrontal cortical blockade of the astrocytic glutamate transporter (GLT-1) induces anhedonia and c-Fos expression in areas that regulate anxiety, including the central amygdala(More)
Opioid pain medications have detrimental side effects including analgesic tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Tolerance and OIH counteract opioid analgesia and drive dose escalation. The cell types and receptors on which opioids act to initiate these maladaptive processes remain disputed, which has prevented the development of therapies to(More)
Maladaptive behavioral responses characteristic of post-traumatic stress disorders are notably resistant to treatment. We hypothesized that the pharmacological disruption of memories activated during reconsolidation might reverse established stress-induced increases in depression-like behaviors and cocaine reward. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to repeated(More)
Inhibition of Gβγ-subunit signaling to phospholipase C β3 has been shown to potentiate morphine-mediated antinociception while attenuating the development of tolerance and dependence in mice. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Gβγ-subunit inhibition on antinociception and other pharmacological effects, such as respiratory depression,(More)
1 Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 2 Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA 3 Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 4 Stanford Neurosciences Institute, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 5 Stanford(More)
BACKGROUND Alcoholism is associated with specific brain abnormalities revealed through postmortem studies, including a reduction in glial cell number and dysregulated glutamatergic neurotransmission. Whether these abnormalities contribute to the etiology of alcoholism, are consequences of alcohol use, or both is still unknown. METHODS We investigated the(More)
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