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A sensitive, robust isotope dilution LC/MS/MS method is presented for the quantitative analysis of human urine for the alkyl methylphosphonic acid metabolites of five organophosphorus nerve agents (VX, rVX or VR, GB or Sarin, GD or Soman, and GF or Cyclosarin). The selective sample preparation method employs non-bonded silica solid-phase extraction and is(More)
A case is presented of the attempted suicide of a 58-year-old man using castor beans. The patient came to the emergency room complaining of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea for nine hours following the ingestion of six castor beans. Urine samples were taken throughout the hospital stay and submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for(More)
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), including gonyautoxins and saxitoxins, are produced by multiple species of microalgae and dinoflagellates, and are bioaccumulated by shellfish and other animals. Human exposure to PSTs typically occurs through ingestion of recreationally harvested contaminated shellfish and results in nonspecific symptomology. Confirmation(More)
The rodenticide monofluoroacetate (MFA) and monochloroacetate (MCA), a chemical intermediate from several chemical syntheses, have been identified as potential agents of chemical terrorism due to their high toxicity. In preparation for response to poisonings and mass exposures, we have developed a quantification method using isotopic dilution to determine(More)
Ricinine (3-cyano-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone) is a urinary biomarker that can be measured to confirm human exposure to castor bean products such as ricin. Because many consumer products contain castor oil, another castor bean product, ricinine may be detectable in the general population. The following study characterized urinary ricinine concentrations(More)
A method to enhance the signal intensity and signal-to-noise of several alkyl methylphosphonic acids in negative electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ESI LC-MS/MS) is presented. This class of compound represents the initial metabolites and environmental degradants of the nerve agents: VX, rVX (Russian VX), GB (Sarin), GF(More)
Although nerve agent use is prohibited, concerns remain for human exposure to nerve agents during decommissioning, research, and warfare. Exposure can be detected through the analysis of hydrolysis products in urine as well as blood. An analytical method to detect exposure to five nerve agents, including VX, VR (Russian VX), GB (sarin), GD (soman), and GF(More)
Saxitoxin (STX) and neosaxitoxin (NEO) are potent neurotoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). PSP typically occurs through the ingestion of bivalve shellfish that have consumed toxin producing dinoflagellates. Due to initial presentation of symptoms being nonspecific, a clinical measurement is needed to confirm exposure to these toxins. Our(More)
Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample(More)