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The apolipoprotein E type 4 allele (APOE-epsilon 4) is genetically associated with the common late onset familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Risk for AD increased from 20% to 90% and mean age at onset decreased from 84 to 68 years with increasing number of APOE-epsilon 4 alleles in 42 families with late onset AD. Thus APOE-epsilon 4(More)
Gene dosage of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 allele is a major risk factor for familial Alzheimer disease (AD) of late onset (after age 60). Here we studied a large series of 115 AD case subjects and 243 controls as well as 150 affected and 197 unaffected members of 66 AD families. Our data demonstrate a protective effect of the epsilon 2 allele, in(More)
HIV produces a chronic viral infection of the central nervous system that elicits chronic glial activation and overexpression of glial cytokines that are also implicated in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. A genetic risk factor for AD is the E4 isoform for apolipoprotein E (APOE). Here we compare the frequency of neurologic symptoms for subjects with(More)
Epidemiologic studies indicate that elderly women are at higher risk for Alzheimer disease compared to men. In order to pathologically verify this result, the extent of AD brain lesions (NFT and SP) was compared for men and women at each age, that is, at each decade from 25 years to 95 years, in a large sample of > 5000 routine autopsy cases. Women had more(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Both stroke and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele increase the risk of dementia. However, the interaction between stroke and APOE on dementia is still unclear. We addressed this topic by using a longitudinal design. METHODS We followed up a community cohort of 1301 subjects aged >/=75 years, who did not have dementia at(More)
A genetic classification of Alzheimer disease(s) (AD) is presented. We describe a potential metabolic process in individuals who inherit apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 (APOE4, gene; apoE4, protein) alleles, leading to increased risk and earlier age of onset of late-onset Alzheimer disease. Apolipoprotein E-epsilon 3 (apoE3) binds to tau protein, possibly(More)
BACKGROUND Recent findings of a reduced cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlu) in at-risk relatives of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) who carry the apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 allele suggest a causative role for the E4 isoform in cognitive changes that lead to AD. It is not known whether epsilon 4 allele-associated deficits exist in(More)
Density profiles of Alzheimer's disease (AD) regional brain pathology were constructed for 249 subjects in the Huddinge Brain Bank. Counts per square millimeter for neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), diffuse plaques (DP), and neuritic plaques (NP) in 38 areas were investigated using a pattern recognition technique called GoM. The seven distributional profiles(More)
Apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 (APOE4, gene; apoE4, protein) is a susceptibility gene or risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The genetic relevance of APOE4 has been widely confirmed. The APOE gene is not a disease locus, with specific mutations causing Alzheimer disease. Allelic variations at the APOE locus affect the rate of disease progression. The(More)