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Children are among the most frequent users of the Internet, yet searching and browsing the web can present many challenges. Studies over the past two decades on how children search were conducted with finite and pre-determined content found in CD-ROM applications, online digital libraries, and web directories. However, with the current popularity of the(More)
As technology for children becomes more mobile, social, and distributed, our design methods and techniques must evolve to better explore these new directions. This paper reports on "Layered Elaboration," a co-design technique created to support these evolving needs. .Layered Elaboration allows design teams to generate ideas through an iterative process in(More)
In pancreatic beta cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important site for insulin biosynthesis and the folding of newly synthesized proinsulin. Here, we show that IRE1alpha, an ER-resident protein kinase, has a crucial function in insulin biosynthesis. IRE1alpha phosphorylation is coupled to insulin biosynthesis in response to transient exposure to(More)
Children want to find information about their world, but there are barriers to finding what they seek. Young people have varying abilities to formulate multi-step queries and comprehend search results. Challenges in understanding where to type, confusion about what tools are available, and frustration with how to parse the results page all have led to a(More)
In this paper, we present a framework that describes commonly used design techniques for Participatory Design with children. Although there are many currently used techniques for designing with children, researchers working in differing contexts and in a changing technological landscape find themselves facing difficult design situations. The FACIT PD(More)
This paper presents the results of a large-scale, qualitative study conducted in the homes of children aged 7, 9, and 11 investigating Internet searching processes on Google. Seven search roles, representing distinct behavior patterns displayed by children when interacting with the Google search engine are and selected to present a view of the whole child(More)
Face-to-face design with child and adult design partners is not always possible due to distant geographical locations or time differences. Yet we believe that the designs of children in areas not co-located with system builders, or who live in locations not easily accessed, are just as important and valid as children who are easily accessible especially(More)
Cooperative Inquiry is a Participatory Design method that involves children (typically 7--11 years old) as full partners with adults in the design of technologies intended for use by children. For many years, child designers have worked together with adults in Cooperative Inquiry approaches. However, in the past children have not typically initiated the(More)
We introduce a design technique, <i>Clear Panels</i>, to design interactive mobile device applications. Using mixed-fidelity prototyping, a combination of low- and high-tech materials, participants refine multiple aspects of a mobile application's design. <i>Clear Panels</i> supports writing and sketching via a transparent overlay affixed atop a mobile(More)
This paper discusses the challenges inherent in conducting research with young participants. Based on a series of three studies with children ranging in age from 7--17 as examples, the paper contains descriptions of participant recruitment approaches and challenges. Also included is a discussion of issues surrounding the retention of participants for(More)