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OBJECTIVE Animal and in vitro data suggest that Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) may modulate CYP3A4 activity. As such, GBE may alter the exposure of HIV protease inhibitors metabolized by CYP3A4. It is also possible that GBE could alter protease inhibitor pharmacokinetics (PK) secondary to modulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The primary objective of the study(More)
OBJECTIVES Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 gene have been shown to influence nevirapine plasma concentrations in HIV-infected European Caucasians. Although nevirapine is used extensively in Africa, the influence of CYP2B6 genotype on nevirapine exposure has not been assessed in this population. We aimed to determine the influence of CYP2B6(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the effect of efavirenz on bupropion hydroxylation as a marker of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 activity in healthy subjects. METHODS Thirteen subjects received a single oral dose of bupropion SR 150 mg before and after 2 weeks of efavirenz administration for comparison of bupropion and hydroxybupropion pharmacokinetics. Efavirenz(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To characterize the pharmacokinetics of indinavir in the presence and absence of milk thistle and to determine the offset of any effect of milk thistle on indinavir disposition. DESIGN Prospective open-label drug interaction study. SETTING Outpatient clinic. SUBJECTS Ten healthy volunteers. Intervention. Blood samples were collected(More)
Midazolam is a common probe used to predict CYP3A activity, but multiple blood samples are necessary to determine midazolam's area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). As such, single sampling strategies have been examined. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of single midazolam concentrations to predict midazolam AUC in the presence(More)
Ricobendazole (RBZ) was administered in sheep at the dose rate of 5 mg/kg by intravenous (i.v.) route as a 10% experimental solution, by the intraruminal (i.r.) route as a 10% experimental suspension, and by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route as a 10% commercial formulation available in Argentina. Blood samples were drawn during a 60 h period. Plasma(More)
The pharmacokinetics of ricobendazole (RBZ) and its major metabolite albendazole sulphone (ABZSO2) were studied in six calves, after administration of RBZ (7.5 mg/kg), using a 10% experimental solution by the intravenous (i.v.) route, a 10% commercial solution by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route, and a 10% experimental suspension by the intraruminal (i.r.)(More)
BACKGROUND Osteonecrosis is increasingly recognized as a debilitating complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but the natural history has not been well described. We previously documented a high prevalence (4.4%) of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-documented osteonecrosis of the hip in a cohort of 339 asymptomatic HIV-infected(More)
The cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) characterizes stage-II coma according to Fischgold and Mathis. Its evolution and prognostic value are still uncertain. An analytic investigation of CAP and its components (phase A of greater arousal and phase B of lesser arousal) was conducted on a patient with post-traumatic coma who completely recovered. The(More)
Corticosteroid therapy has been associated with bone toxicities (eg, osteonecrosis) and Cushing syndrome in HIV-infected patients; this may be partially attributable to a pharmacokinetic drug interaction between HIV protease inhibitors and corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to characterize the influence of low-dose ritonavir on prednisolone(More)