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We have previously developed and characterized isolated microglia and astrocyte cultures from rapid (<4 h) brain autopsies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and nondemented elderly control (ND) patients. In the present study, we evaluate the inflammatory repertoire of AD and ND microglia cultured from white matter (corpus callosum) and gray matter (superior(More)
alpha1-Antichymotrypsin (ACT) is an acute phase protein expressed in the brain which specifically colocalizes with amyloid-beta during Alzheimer's disease. We analyzed ACT synthesis in cultured human cortical astrocytes in response to various cytokines and growth factors. Oncostatin M (OSM) and interleukin (IL)-1beta were potent stimulators of ACT mRNA(More)
Amyloid beta peptide (A beta), the major protein constituent of senile plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease, is believed to facilitate the progressive neurodegeneration that occurs in the latter stages of this disease. Early attempts to characterize the structure-activity relationship of A beta toxicity in vitro were compromised by the inability to(More)
Several neurological diseases, including Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, are characterized by the accumulation of alpha-synuclein phosphorylated at Ser-129 (p-Ser-129). The kinase or kinases responsible for this phosphorylation have been the subject of intense investigation. Here we submit evidence that polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2, also known(More)
To gain a molecular understanding of neuronal responses to amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta), we have analyzed the effects of Abeta treatment on neuronal gene expression in vitro by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization. Treatment of cultured rat cortical neurons with Abeta1-40 results in a widespread apoptotic neuronal death.(More)
The aspartyl protease beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) initiates processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide, the major component of Alzheimer disease (AD) plaques. To determine the role that BACE1 plays in the development of Abeta-driven AD-like pathology, we have crossed PDAPP mice, a(More)
Triple-transgenic mice (3xTgAD) overexpressing Swedish-mutated β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP(swe)), P310L-Tau (Tau(P301L)), and physiological levels of M146V-presenilin-1 (PS1(M146V)) display extracellular amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) deposits and Tau tangles. More disputed is the observation that these mice accumulate intraneuronal Aβ that has been linked(More)
Herein, we describe our strategy to design metabolically stable γ-secretase inhibitors which are selective for inhibition of Aβ generation over Notch. We highlight our synthetic strategy to incorporate diversity and chirality. Compounds 30 (ELND006) and 34 (ELND007) both entered human clinical trials. The in vitro and in vivo characteristics for these two(More)
In this Letter, we describe our efforts to design HEA BACE-1 inhibitors that are highly permeable coupled with negligible levels of permeability-glycoprotein activity. These efforts culminate in producing 16 which lowers Αβ by 28% and 32% in the cortex and CSF, respectively, in the preclinical wild type Hartley guinea pig animal model when dosed orally at(More)